Millennium: 2nd millennium
1686 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1686
Ab urbe condita2439
Armenian calendar1135
Assyrian calendar6436
Balinese saka calendar1607–1608
Bengali calendar1093
Berber calendar2636
English Regnal yearJa. 2 – 2 Ja. 2
Buddhist calendar2230
Burmese calendar1048
Byzantine calendar7194–7195
Chinese calendar乙丑年 (Wood Ox)
4382 or 4322
    — to —
丙寅年 (Fire Tiger)
4383 or 4323
Coptic calendar1402–1403
Discordian calendar2852
Ethiopian calendar1678–1679
Hebrew calendar5446–5447
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1742–1743
 - Shaka Samvat1607–1608
 - Kali Yuga4786–4787
Holocene calendar11686
Igbo calendar686–687
Iranian calendar1064–1065
Islamic calendar1097–1098
Japanese calendarJōkyō 3
Javanese calendar1609–1610
Julian calendarGregorian minus 10 days
Korean calendar4019
Minguo calendar226 before ROC
Nanakshahi calendar218
Thai solar calendar2228–2229
Tibetan calendar阴木牛年
(female Wood-Ox)
1812 or 1431 or 659
    — to —
(male Fire-Tiger)
1813 or 1432 or 660

1686 (MDCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar, the 1686th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 686th year of the 2nd millennium, the 86th year of the 17th century, and the 7th year of the 1680s decade. As of the start of 1686, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.



  • January 3 – In Madras (now Chennai) in India, local residents employed by the East India Company threaten to boycott their jobs after corporate administrator William Gyfford imposes a house tax on residences within the city walls. Gyfford places security forces at all entrances to the city and threatens to banish anyone who fails to pay their taxes, as well as to confiscate the goods of merchants who refuse to make sales. A compromise is reached the next day on the amount of the taxes.
  • January 17King Louis XIV of France reports the success of the Edict of Fontainebleau, issued on October 22 against the Protestant Huguenots, and reports that after less than three months, the vast majority of the Huguenot population had left the country.
  • January 29 – In Guatemala, Spanish Army Captain Melchor Rodríguez Mazariegos leads a campaign to conquer the indigenous Maya people in the rain forests of Lacandona, departing from Huehuetenango to rendezvous with the colonial governor at San Mateo Ixtatán.
  • January 31 – In the wake of the success of France's campaign against Protestantism, Victor Amadeus II, the Duke of Savoy, issues an edict against the Valdesi, the Duchy's Protestant minority, setting a 15-day deadline for 15,000 members of the Valdesi to publicly renounce their beliefs as erroneous, or face banishment or death. The February 15 deadline is ignored.
  • February 15 – After the Valdesi in the Duchy of Savoy decline to obey the edict to convert to Catholicism, Duke Victor Amadeus dispatches a force of 9,000 French and Piedmontese soldiers to enforce the edict.
  • February 22 – Sweden's Council of State endorses the reforms proposed by King Charles XI for the Swedish Church Law 1686, after having debated it in three sessions on February 18, 19 and 20. The law confirms and describes the rights of the Lutheran Church and confirms Sweden as a Lutheran state; all non-Lutherans are banned from immigration unless they convert to Lutheranism; the Romani people are to be incorporated to the Lutheran Church; the poor care law is regulated; and all parishes are forced by law to teach the children within them to read and write, in order to learn the scripture, which closely eradicates illiteracy in Sweden.
  • February 27Gabriel Milan, the controversial Governor of the Danish West Indies since 1684, is removed from office by order of King Frederick III and placed under arrest for treason. Three years later, after being found guilty in a trial after being brought back to Copenhagen, Milan is beheaded on March 26, 1689.
  • March 3 – A group of 107 French Canadian soldiers, under the command of Pierre de Troyes, begins the Hudson Bay expedition, departing from Montreal on an 800-mile (1,300 km) journey to take control of the properties of British North American settlers of the Hudson's Bay Company. The group marches for 82 days and arrives at the first Hudson's Bay fort, at Moose Factory on June 19.




Date unknown

  • English historian and naturalist Robert Plot publishes The Natural History of Staffordshire, a collection of illustrations and texts detailing the history of the county. It is the first document known to mention crop circles and a double sunset.
  • The Café Procope, which remains in business in the 21st century, is opened in Paris by Procopio Cutò, as a coffeehouse.



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