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Temporal range: 5.5–1.41 Ma
Late Miocene - Early Pleistocene
Croizetoceros ramosus 4.JPG
Skull of Croizetoceros ramosus
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Artiodactyla
Family: Cervidae
Subfamily: Cervinae
Tribe: Cervini
Genus: Croizetoceros
Heintz, 1970
Type species
Croizetoceros ramosus
Croizet & Jobert, 1828
(as Cervus ramosus)
  • C. proramosus
  • C. ramosus

Croizetoceros is an extinct genus of deer which lived throughout much of Europe, first appearing during the last stages of the Miocene and living until the Early Pleistocene.


The type species, Croizetoceros ramosus was originally classified as Cervus ramosus, but was found distinct enough to be placed into its own genus. Many subspecies of C. ramosus have been identified throughout Europe, and another species, C. proramosus, has also been described in 1996.


Croizetoceros was a mid-sized species, similar in size to the living fallow deer. It stood a little over 1 m (3.3 ft) tall and weighed around 60 kg (130 lb). Croizetoceros was one of the first modern-looking deer. It had complex antlers, with four or even five short branches. They were long and lyre-shaped, with the tines branching off tangentially from the central branch.

Croizetoceros was probably a browser. Its teeth were characterized by a high degree of wear, indicating that it fed on abrasive plants.

This page was last updated at 2022-01-04 00:30 UTC. Update now. View original page.

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