Electronegativities of the elements (data page)

Electronegativity (Pauling scale)

Atomic radius decreases → Ionization energy increases → Electronegativity increases →
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Group →
↓ Period
1 H
2.20
He
 
2 Li
0.98
Be
1.57
B
2.04
C
2.55
N
3.04
O
3.44
F
3.98
Ne
 
3 Na
0.93
Mg
1.31
Al
1.61
Si
1.90
P
2.19
S
2.58
Cl
3.16
Ar
 
4 K
0.82
Ca
1.00
Sc
1.36
Ti
1.54
V
1.63
Cr
1.66
Mn
1.55
Fe
1.83
Co
1.88
Ni
1.91
Cu
1.90
Zn
1.65
Ga
1.81
Ge
2.01
As
2.18
Se
2.55
Br
2.96
Kr
3.00
5 Rb
0.82
Sr
0.95
Y
1.22
Zr
1.33
Nb
1.6
Mo
2.16
Tc
1.9
Ru
2.2
Rh
2.28
Pd
2.20
Ag
1.93
Cd
1.69
In
1.78
Sn
1.96
Sb
2.05
Te
2.1
I
2.66
Xe
2.60
6 Cs
0.79
Ba
0.89
1 asterisk Lu
1.27
Hf
1.3
Ta
1.5
W
2.36
Re
1.9
Os
2.2
Ir
2.20
Pt
2.28
Au
2.54
Hg
2.00
Tl
1.62
Pb
1.87
Bi
2.02
Po
2.0
At
2.2
Rn
2.2
7 Fr
>0.79
Ra
0.9
1 asterisk Lr
1.3
Rf
 
Db
 
Sg
 
Bh
 
Hs
 
Mt
 
Ds
 
Rg
 
Cn
 
Nh
 
Fl
 
Mc
 
Lv
 
Ts
 
Og
 

1 asterisk La
1.1
Ce
1.12
Pr
1.13
Nd
1.14
Pm
Sm
1.17
Eu
Gd
1.2
Tb
1.1
Dy
1.22
Ho
1.23
Er
1.24
Tm
1.25
Yb
1 asterisk Ac
1.1
Th
1.3
Pa
1.5
U
1.38
Np
1.36
Pu
1.28
Am
1.13
Cm
1.28
Bk
1.3
Cf
1.3
Es
1.3
Fm
1.3
Md
1.3
No
1.3

See also: Electronegativities of the elements (data page)
There are no reliable sources for Pm, Eu and Yb other than the range of 1.1–1.2; see Pauling, Linus (1960). The Nature of the Chemical Bond. 3rd ed., Cornell University Press, p. 93.

  1. ^ The electronegativity of francium was chosen by Pauling as 0.7, close to that of caesium (also assessed 0.7 at that point). The base value of hydrogen was later increased by 0.10 and caesium's electronegativity was later refined to 0.79; however, no refinements have been made for francium as no experiment has been conducted. However, francium is expected and, to a small extent, observed to be more electronegative than caesium. See francium for details.
  2. ^ See Brown, Geoffrey (2012). The Inaccessible Earth: An integrated view to its structure and composition. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 88. ISBN 9789401115162.
Number Symbol Name use WEL CRC LNG
1 H hydrogen 2.20 same
2 He helium no data same
3 Li lithium 0.98 same
4 Be beryllium 1.57 same
5 B boron 2.04 same
6 C carbon 2.55 same
7 N nitrogen 3.04 same
8 O oxygen 3.5 same
9 F fluorine 3.98 3.98 3.98 3.90
10 Ne neon no data same
11 Na sodium 0.93 same
12 Mg magnesium 1.31 same
13 Al aluminium 1.61 same
14 Si silicon 1.90 same
15 P phosphorus 2.19 same
16 S sulfur 2.58 same
17 Cl chlorine 3.16 same
18 Ar argon no data same
19 K potassium 0.82 same
20 Ca calcium 1.00 same
21 Sc scandium 1.36 same
22 Ti titanium 1.54 same
23 V vanadium 1.63 same
24 Cr chromium 1.66 same
25 Mn manganese 1.55 same
26 Fe iron 1.83 same
27 Co cobalt 1.88 same
28 Ni nickel 1.91 same
29 Cu copper 1.90 same
30 Zn zinc 1.65 same
31 Ga gallium 1.81 same
32 Ge germanium 2.01 same
33 As arsenic 2.18 same
34 Se selenium 2.55 same
35 Br bromine 2.96 same
36 Kr krypton 3.00 3.00 no data no data
37 Rb rubidium 0.82 same
38 Sr strontium 0.95 same
39 Y yttrium 1.22 same
40 Zr zirconium 1.33 same
41 Nb niobium 1.6 same
42 Mo molybdenum 2.16 same
43 Tc technetium 1.9 1.9 2.10 2.10
44 Ru ruthenium 2.2 same
45 Rh rhodium 2.28 same
46 Pd palladium 2.20 same
47 Ag silver 1.93 same
48 Cd cadmium 1.69 same
49 In indium 1.78 same
50 Sn tin 1.96 same
51 Sb antimony 2.05 same
52 Te tellurium 2.1 same
53 I iodine 2.66 same
54 Xe xenon 2.6 2.6 2.60 no data
55 Cs caesium 0.79 same
56 Ba barium 0.89 same
57 La lanthanum 1.10 same
58 Ce cerium 1.12 same
59 Pr praseodymium 1.13 same
60 Nd neodymium 1.14 same
61 Pm promethium no data same
62 Sm samarium 1.17 same
63 Eu europium no data same
64 Gd gadolinium 1.20 same
65 Tb terbium no data same
66 Dy dysprosium 1.22 same
67 Ho holmium 1.23 same
68 Er erbium 1.24 same
69 Tm thulium 1.25 same
70 Yb ytterbium no data same
71 Lu lutetium 1.27 1.27 1.0 1.0
72 Hf hafnium 1.3 same
73 Ta tantalum 1.5 same
74 W tungsten 2.36 2.36 1.7 1.7
75 Re rhenium 1.9 same
76 Os osmium 2.2 same
77 Ir iridium 2.20 2.20 2.2 2.2
78 Pt platinum 2.28 2.28 2.2 2.2
79 Au gold 2.54 2.54 2.4 2.4
80 Hg mercury 2.00 2.00 1.9 1.9
81 Tl thallium 1.62 1.62 1.8 1.8
82 Pb lead 2.33 2.33 1.8 1.8
83 Bi bismuth 2.02 2.02 1.9 1.9
84 Po polonium 2.0 same
85 At astatine 2.2 same
86 Rn radon no data same
87 Fr francium no data 0.7
88 Ra radium 0.9 same
89 Ac actinium 1.1 same
90 Th thorium 1.3 same
91 Pa protactinium 1.5 same
92 U uranium 1.38 1.38 1.7 1.7
93 Np neptunium 1.36 1.36 1.3 1.3
94 Pu plutonium 1.28 1.28 1.3 1.3
95 Am americium 1.3 1.3 no data 1.3
96 Cm curium 1.3 1.3 no data 1.3
97 Bk berkelium 1.3 1.3 no data 1.3
98 Cf californium 1.3 1.3 no data 1.3
99 Es einsteinium 1.3 1.3 no data 1.3
100 Fm fermium 1.3 1.3 no data 1.3
101 Md mendelevium 1.3 1.3 no data 1.3
102 No nobelium 1.3 1.3 no data 1.3

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