Detailed Pedia

List of canids

10 of the 12 extant canid genera left-to-right, top-to-bottom: Canis, Cuon, Lycaon, Cerdocyon, Chrysocyon, Speothos, Vulpes, Nyctereutes, Otocyon, and Urocyon

Canidae is a family of mammals in the order Carnivora, which includes domestic dogs, wolves, coyotes, foxes, jackals, dingoes, and many other extant and extinct dog-like mammals. A member of this family is called a canid; all extant species are a part of a single subfamily, Caninae, and are called canines. They are found on all continents except Antarctica, having arrived independently or accompanied human beings over extended periods of time. Canids vary in size, including tails, from the 2 meter (6 ft 7 in) wolf to the 46 cm (18 in) fennec fox. Population sizes range from the Falkland Islands wolf, extinct since 1876, to the domestic dog, which has a worldwide population of over 1 billion. The body forms of canids are similar, typically having long muzzles, upright ears, teeth adapted for cracking bones and slicing flesh, long legs, and bushy tails. Most species are social animals, living together in family units or small groups and behaving cooperatively. Typically, only the dominant pair in a group breeds, and a litter of young is reared annually in an underground den. Canids communicate by scent signals and vocalizations. One canid, the domestic dog, entered into a partnership with humans at least 14,000 years ago and today remains one of the most widely kept domestic animals.

The 13 extant genera and 37 species of Caninae are primarily split into two tribes: Canini, which includes 11 genera and 19 species, comprising the wolf-like Canina subtribe and the South American Cerdocyonina subtribe; and Vulpini, the fox-like canids, comprising 3 genera and 15 species. Not included in either tribe is the Urocyon genus, which includes 2 species, mainly comprising the gray fox and believed to be basal to the family. Additionally, one genus in Canini, Dusicyon, was composed of two recently extinct species, with the South American fox going extinct around 400 years ago and the Falkland Islands wolf going extinct in 1876.

In addition to the extant Caninae, Canidae comprises two extinct subfamilies designated as Hesperocyoninae and Borophaginae. Extinct species have also been placed into Caninae, in both extant and extinct genera; at least 80 extinct Caninae species have been found, as well as over 70 species in Borophaginae and nearly 30 in Hesperocyoninae, though due to ongoing research and discoveries the exact number and categorization is not fixed. The earliest canids found belong to Hesperocyoninae, and are believed to have diverged from the existing Caniformia suborder around 37 million years ago.

Conventions

IUCN Red List categories
Conservation status
 EX Extinct (2 species)
 EW Extinct in the wild (0 species)
 CR Critically Endangered (0 species)
 EN Endangered (4 species)
 VU Vulnerable (0 species)
 NT Near threatened (5 species)
 LC Least concern (26 species)
Other categories
 DD Data deficient (0 species)
 NE Not evaluated (1 species)

Conservation status codes listed follow the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species. Range maps are provided wherever possible; if a range map is not available, a description of the canid's range is provided. Ranges are based on the IUCN Red List for that species, unless otherwise noted. All extinct species (or subspecies) listed alongside extant species went extinct after 1500 CE, and are indicated by a dagger symbol: "Extinct".

Classification

The family Canidae consists of 37 extant species belonging to 12 genera and divided into 194 extant subspecies, as well the extinct genus Dusicyon, comprising two extinct species, and 13 extinct wolf subspecies, which are the only canid species to go extinct since prehistoric times. This does not include hybrid species (such as wolfdogs or coywolfs) or extinct prehistoric species (such as the dire wolf or Epicyon). Modern molecular studies indicate that the 13 genera can be grouped into 3 tribes or clades.

Subfamily Caninae

Caninae  
Canini  
Canina  

Canis

Cuon

Lupulella

Lycaon

Cerdocyonina  

Speothos

Chrysocyon

DusicyonExtinct

Lycalopex

Cerdocyon

Atelocynus

Vulpini  

Otocyon

Nyctereutes

Vulpes

Urocyon

Canids

The following classification is based on the taxonomy described by Mammal Species of the World (2005), with augmentation by generally accepted proposals made since using molecular phylogenetic analysis, such as the promotion of the African golden wolf to a separate species from the golden jackal, and splitting out the Lupulella genus from Canis. Range maps are based on IUCN range data. There are several additional proposals which are disputed, such as the promotion of the red wolf and eastern wolf as species from subspecies of the wolf, which are marked with a "(debated)" tag.

Subfamily Caninae

Tribe Canini

Genus Atelocynus (Cabrera, 1940) – one species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
Short-eared dog

Black small-eared canine

A. microtis
Cabrera, 1940

Two subspecies
  • A. m. microtis
  • A. m. sclateri
Western Amazon rainforest in South America
Size: 72–100 cm (28–39 in) long, plus 24–35 cm (9–14 in) tail

Habitat: Wetlands, forest, and savanna

Diet: Primarily eats fish, insects, and small mammals, as well as fruit, birds, and crabs
 NT 


Unknown Population declining

Genus Canis (Linnaeus, 1758) – six species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
African wolf

Gray and brown canine in grass

C. lupaster
Hemprich and Ehrenberg, 1832

Six subspecies
North and northeastern Africa
Size: 100 cm (39 in) long, plus 20 cm (8 in) tail

Habitat: Grassland, shrubland, and savanna

Diet: Primarily eats wild boar and livestock, as well as other mammals and fruit
 LC 


Unknown Population declining

Coyote

Gray and brown canine in the snow

C. latrans
Say, 1823

Nineteen subspecies
  • C. l. cagottis (Mexican coyote)
  • C. l. clepticus (San Pedro Martir coyote)
  • C. l. dickeyi (El Salvador coyote)
  • C. l. frustor (Southeastern coyote)
  • C. l. goldmani (Belize coyote)
  • C. l. hondurensis (Honduras coyote)
  • C. l. impavidus (Durango coyote)
  • C. l. incolatus (Northern coyote)
  • C. l. jamesi (Tiburón Island coyote)
  • C. l. latrans (Plains coyote)
  • C. l. lestes (Mountain coyote)
  • C. l. mearnsi (Mearns' coyote)
  • C. l. microdon (Lower Rio Grande coyote)
  • C. l. ochropus (California valley coyote)
  • C. l. peninsulae (Peninsula coyote)
  • C. l. texensis (Texas plains coyote)
  • C. l. thamnos (Northeastern coyote)
  • C. l. umpquensis (Northwest coast coyote)
  • C. l. vigilis (Colima coyote)
North America
Size: 100–135 cm (39–53 in) long, plus 40 cm (16 in) tail

Habitat: Forest, desert, shrubland, and grassland

Diet: Eats a wide variety of foods, including both small and large mammals, fruit, and insects
 LC 


1 million+ Population increasing

Dog

Dog in grass

C. familiaris
Linnaeus, 1758
Worldwide Size: Varies by breed

Habitat: Domesticated

Diet: Varied
 NE 


1 billion Unknown

Ethiopian wolf

Red canine on grassy rocks

C. simensis
Rüppell, 1840

Two subspecies
  • C. s. citernii (Southern Ethiopian wolf)
  • C. s. simensis (Northern Ethiopian wolf)
Ethiopian Highlands
Size: 84–100 cm (33–39 in) long, plus 27–40 cm (11–16 in) tail

Habitat: Inland wetlands, grassland, shrubland, and rocky areas

Diet: Primarily eats rodents as well as small mammals
 EN 


200 Population declining

Golden jackal

Gray and brown canine next to grass

C. aureus
Linnaeus, 1758

Seven subspecies
  • C. a. aureus (Persian jackal)
  • C. a. cruesemanni (Siamese jackal)
  • C. a. ecsedensis (Pannonian jackal)
  • C. a. indicus (Indian jackal)
  • C. a. moreoticus (European jackal)
  • C. a. naria (Sri Lankan jackal)
  • C. a. syriacus (Syrian jackal)
Eastern Europe, Middle East, and southern Asia
Size: 60–132 cm (24–52 in) long, plus 20–30 cm (8–12 in) tail

Habitat: Forest, grassland, shrubland, and savanna

Diet: Eats a wide variety of foods, including small to large mammals, birds, fish, fruit, and insects
 LC 


Unknown, but at least 150,000 Population increasing

Wolf

Gray canine in grass

C. lupus
Linnaeus, 1758

37 subspecies
Eurasia and northern North America
Size: 105–160 cm (41–63 in) long, plus 29–50 cm (11–20 in) tail

Habitat: Forest, desert, rocky areas, shrubland, grassland, and inland wetlands

Diet: Primarily eats large ungulates, as well as small animals, carrion, and berries
 LC 


300,000 Population steady

Genus Cerdocyon (C. E. H. Smith, 1839) – one species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
Crab-eating fox

Gray canine in jungle

C. thous
Linnaeus, 1766

Five subspecies
  • C. t. aquilus
  • C. t. azarae
  • C. t. entrerianus
  • C. t. germanus
  • C. t. thous
Eastern and northern South America
Size: 64 cm (25 in) long, plus 28 cm (11 in) tail

Habitat: Forest, savanna, shrubland, grassland, and inland wetlands

Diet: Primarily eats crabs and insects, as well as rodents, birds, turtles, eggs, fruit, and carrion
 LC 


Unknown Population steady

Genus Chrysocyon (C. E. H. Smith, 1839) – one species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
Maned wolf

Red, furry canine in grass

C. brachyurus
Illiger, 1815
Central South America
Size: 100–130 cm (39–51 in) long, plus 45 cm (18 in) tail

Habitat: Forest, wetlands, grassland, shrubland, and savanna

Diet: Primarily eats fruit, arthropods, and small and medium vertebrates
 NT 


17,000 Unknown

Genus Cuon (Hodgson, 1838) – one species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
Dhole

Red canine in grass

C. alpinus
Pallas, 1811

Three subspecies
Southeast Asia
Size: 90 cm (35 in) long, plus 40–45 cm (16–18 in) tail

Habitat: Forest, grassland, and shrubland

Diet: Primarily eats ungulates, as well as small rodents and hares
 EN 


1,000–2,200 Population declining

Genus DusicyonExtinct (C. E. H. Smith, 1839) – two species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
Falkland Islands wolfExtinct

Stuffed gray canine

D. australis
Kerr, 1792
Falkland Islands at tip of South America
Size: Unknown

Habitat: Grassland and shrubland

Diet: Unknown
 EX 


0 Population steady

South American foxExtinct D. avus
Burmeister, 1866
Southern South America Size: Unknown

Habitat: Grassland and shrubland

Diet: Unknown
 EX 


0 Population steady

Genus Lupulella (Hilzheimer, 1906) – two species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
Black-backed jackal

Brown and black canine in shrubland

L. mesomelas
Schreber, 1775

Two subspecies
  • L. m. mesomelas (Cape black-backed jackal)
  • L. m. schmidti (East African black-backed jackal)
Southern Africa and eastern Africa
Size: 60–95 cm (24–37 in) long, plus 16–40 cm (6–16 in) tail

Habitat: Marine intertidal, forest, desert, grassland, shrubland, and savanna

Diet: Primarily eats small to medium-sized mammals and birds
 LC 


Unknown Population steady

Side-striped jackal

Gray and brown canine next to grass

L. adustus
Sundevall, 1847

Seven subspecies
  • L. a. adustus (Sundevall's side-striped jackal)
  • L. a. bweha
  • L. a. centralis
  • L. a. grayi
  • L. a. kaffensis (Kaffa side-striped jackal)
  • L. a. lateralis
  • L. a. notatus (East African side-striped jackal)
Central Africa
Size: 69–81 cm (27–32 in) long, plus 30–41 cm (12–16 in) tail

Habitat: Forest, shrubland, savanna, grassland, and inland wetlands

Diet: Primarily eats small to medium-sized mammals and fruit, as well as birds, insects, grass, and carrion
 LC 


3 million Population steady

Genus Lycalopex (Burmeister, 1854) – six species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
Culpeo

Gray canine on barren ground

L. culpeo
Molina, 1782

Six subspecies
  • L. c. andinus
  • L. c. culpaeus
  • L. c. lycoides
  • L. c. magellanicus
  • L. c. reissii
  • L. c. smithersi
Western South America
Size: 95–132 cm (37–52 in) long, plus 32–44 cm (13–17 in) tail

Habitat: Forest, rocky areas, grassland, shrubland, and savanna

Diet: Primarily eats rodents and lagomorphs, as well as livestock and guanacos
 LC 


Unknown Population steady

Darwin's fox

Small dark canine in grass

L. fulvipes
Martin, 1837
Limited areas in southern Chile
Size: 48–59 cm (19–23 in) long, plus 18–26 cm (7–10 in) tail

Habitat: Forest and shrubland

Diet: Primarily eats small mammals, insects, crabs, and fruit
 EN 


600-2,500 Population declining

Hoary fox

Gray canine lying in grass

L. vetulus
Lund, 1842
South-central Brazil
Size: 49–71 cm (19–28 in) long, plus 25–38 cm (10–15 in) tail

Habitat: Savanna

Diet: Primarily eats insects, as well as small rodents, birds, reptiles, and fruit
 LC 


Unknown Unknown

Pampas fox

Gray canine in barren grass

L. gymnocercus
Waldheim, 1814

Five subspecies
  • L. g. antiquus
  • L. g. domeykoanus
  • L. g. gracilis
  • L. g. gymnocercus
  • L. g. maulinicus
Southern South America
Size: 51–74 cm (20–29 in) long, plus 25–41 cm (10–16 in) tail

Habitat: Forest, shrubland, and savanna

Diet: Primarily eats small rodents, hares, birds, insects, and fruit, as well as carrion
 LC 


Unknown Population steady

Sechuran fox

Gray canine head

L. sechurae
Thomas, 1900
Sechura Desert in southwestern Ecuador and northwestern Peru
Size: 50–78 cm (20–31 in) long, plus 27–34 cm (11–13 in) tail

Habitat: Forest, desert, grassland, and shrubland

Diet: Primarily eats fruit and seeds, as well as small rodents, birds, reptiles, insects, scorpions, and carrion
 NT 


15,000 Unknown

South American gray fox

Gray canine in grass

L. griseus
Gray, 1837
Southern South America
Size: 50–66 cm (20–26 in) long, plus 12–34 cm (5–13 in) tail

Habitat: Forest, grassland, and shrubland

Diet: Primarily eats small rodents, hares, and carrion
 LC 


Unknown Population steady

Genus Lycaon (Brookes, 1827) – one species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
African wild dog

Black, brown, and white canine in yellow grass

L. pictus
Temminck, 1820

Five subspecies
Scattered areas of Africa
Size: 76–112 cm (30–44 in) long, plus 30–42 cm (12–17 in) tail

Habitat: Forest, grassland, shrubland, savanna, and desert

Diet: Primarily eats medium-sized antelope
 EN 


1,400 Population declining

Genus Speothos (Lund, 1839) – one species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
Bush dog

Small brown canine in grass

S. venaticus
Lund, 1842

Three subspecies
  • S. v. panamensis (Panamanian bush dog)
  • S. v. venaticus (South American bush dog)
  • S. v. wingei (Southern bush dog)
Northern South America
Size: 57–75 cm (22–30 in) long, plus 12–15 cm (5–6 in) tail

Habitat: Shrubland, forest, grassland, and savanna

Diet: Primarily eats small and medium mammals, as well as birds, reptiles, and fruit
 NT 


15,000 Population declining

Tribe Vulpini

Genus Nyctereutes (Temminck, 1839) – two species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
Common raccoon dog

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N. procyonoides
Gray, 1834

Four subspecies
  • N. p. procyonoides (Chinese raccoon dog)
  • N. p. koreensis (Korean raccoon dog)
  • N. p. orestes (Yunnan raccoon dog)
  • N. p. ussuriensis (Ussuri raccoon dog)
Mainland Eastern Asia, introduced to Central and Eastern Europe (note: map includes range of N. viverrinus)
Size: 49–71 cm (19–28 in) long, plus 15–23 cm (6–9 in) tail

Habitat: Forest, grassland, and shrubland

Diet: Primarily eats insects, rodents, amphibians, birds, fish, and reptiles, as well as fruit, nuts, and berries
 LC 


Unknown, but at least 1.5 million in fur farms Population steady

Japanese raccoon dog

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N. viverrinus
Temminck, 1838
Japan Size: 49–71 cm (19–28 in) long, plus 15–23 cm (6–9 in) tail

Habitat: Forest, grassland, and shrubland

Diet: Primarily eats insects, rodents, amphibians, birds, fish, and reptiles, as well as fruit, nuts, and berries
 NE 


Unknown

Genus Otocyon (Müller, 1835) – one species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
Bat-eared fox

Brown fox with large ears

O. megalotis
Desmarest, 1822

Two subspecies
  • O. m. megalotis
  • O. m. virgatus
Southern and Eastern Africa
Size: 46–61 cm (18–24 in) long, plus 23–34 cm (9–13 in) tail

Habitat: Grassland, shrubland, and savanna

Diet: Primarily eats harvester termites as well as other arthropods
 LC 


Unknown Population steady

Genus Vulpes (Frisch, 1775) – twelve species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
Arctic fox

Arctic fox in the snow facing the viewer

V. lagopus
Linnaeus, 1758

Five subspecies
  • V. l. lagopus (Common Arctic Fox)
  • V. l. beringensis (Bering Islands Arctic fox)
  • V. l. foragoapusis (Greenland Arctic fox)
  • V. l. fuliginosus (Iceland Arctic fox)
  • V. l. pribilofensis (Pribilof Islands Arctic fox)
Arctic North America and Eurasia
Size: 50–75 cm (20–30 in) long, plus 25–43 cm (10–17 in) tail

Habitat: Grassland

Diet: Primarily eats lemmings, as well as other rodents, birds, and reindeer
 LC 


Unknown Population steady

Bengal fox

Brown fox in the grass

V. bengalensis
Shaw, 1800
India
Size: 39–58 cm (15–23 in) long, plus 25–32 cm (10–13 in) tail

Habitat: Grassland and shrubland

Diet: Primarily eats arthropods, rodents, reptiles, fruit, and birds
 LC 


Unknown Population declining

Blanford's fox

Brown fox on rocks

V. cana
Blanford, 1877
The Middle East and Central Asia
Size: 34–47 cm (13–19 in) long, plus 26–36 cm (10–14 in) tail

Habitat: Desert and rocky areas

Diet: Primarily eats fruit and insects
 LC 


Unknown Population steady

Cape fox

Brown and gray fox in the grass

V. chama
A Smith, 1833
Southern Africa
Size: 45–61 cm (18–24 in) long, plus 25–41 cm (10–16 in) tail

Habitat: Rocky areas, grassland, shrubland, and savanna

Diet: Primarily eats fruit and insects
 LC 


20,000 Population steady

Corsac fox

Gray fox standing on a rock

V. corsac
Linnaeus, 1768

Three subspecies
  • V. c. corsac
  • V. c. kalmykorum
  • V. c. turkmenicus
Central Asia
Size: 45–60 cm (18–24 in) long, plus 19–34 cm (7–13 in) tail

Habitat: Desert, grassland, and shrubland

Diet: Primarily eats insects and small rodents
 LC 


Unknown Unknown

Fennec fox

Large-eared fox on rock

V. zerda
Zimmermann, 1780
Northern Africa
Size: 33–40 cm (13–16 in) long, plus 13–23 cm (5–9 in) tail

Habitat: Desert and marine coastal/supratidal

Diet: Primarily eats rodents, insects, birds, eggs, and rabbits
 LC 


Unknown Unknown

Kit fox

Gray fox standing in grass

V. macrotis
Merriam, 1888

Two subspecies
Western North America
Size: 46–54 cm (18–21 in) long, plus 25–34 cm (10–13 in) tail

Habitat: Shrubland, savanna, and grassland

Diet: Primarily eats rodents, rabbits, invertebrates, birds, lizards, and snakes
 LC 


Unknown Population declining

Pale fox

Painting of a light brown fox

V. pallida
Cretzschmar, 1827

Five subspecies
  • V. p. cyrenaica
  • V. p. edwardsi
  • V. p. harterti
  • V. p. oertzeni
  • V. p. pallida
Upper middle Africa
Size: 38–55 cm (15–22 in) long, plus 23–29 cm (9–11 in) tail

Habitat: Desert, grassland, shrubland, and savanna

Diet: Primarily eats plants and berries as well as rodents, reptiles, and insects
 LC 


10,000–100,000 Unknown

Rüppell's fox

Red and gray fox on the snow

V. rueppellii
Schinz, 1825
Northern Africa and the Middle East
Size: 35–56 cm (14–22 in) long, plus 25–39 cm (10–15 in) tail

Habitat: Desert, shrubland, and marine coastal/supratidal

Diet: Primarily eats small mammals, lizards, birds, and insects, as well as fruit and succulents
 LC 


Unknown Population steady

Red fox

Red fox on grass

V. vulpes
Linnaeus, 1758

44 subspecies
  • V. v. abietorum (British Columbian fox)
  • V. v. alascensis (Northern Alaskan fox)
  • V. v. alpherakyi (Eastern Trans-Caucasian fox)
  • V. v. anatolica (Anatolian fox)
  • V. v. arabica (Arabian red fox)
  • V. v. atlantica (Atlas fox)
  • V. v. bangsi (Labrador fox)
  • V. v. barbara (Barbary fox)
  • V. v. beringiana (Anadyr fox)
  • V. v. cascadensis (Cascade red fox)
  • V. v. caucasica (North Caucasian fox)
  • V. v. crucigera (European fox)
  • V. v. daurica (Trans-Baikal fox)
  • V. v. deletrix (Newfoundland fox)
  • V. v. dolichocrania (Ussuri fox)
  • V. v. dorsalis
  • V. v. lavescens (Turkmenian fox)
  • V. v. fulvus (American red fox)
  • V. v. harrimani (Afghan red fox)
  • V. v. hoole (Southern Chinese fox)
  • V. v. ichnusae (Sardinian fox)
  • V. v. indutus (Cyprus fox)
  • V. v. jakutensis (Yakutsk fox)
  • V. v. japonica (Japanese fox)
  • V. v. karagan (Karaganka fox)
  • V. v. kenaiensis (Kenai Peninsula fox)
  • V. v. kurdistanica (Trans-Caucasian montane fox)
  • V. v. macroura (Wasatch Mountains fox)
  • V. v. montana (Hill fox)
  • V. v. necator (Sierra Nevada red fox)
  • V. v. niloticus (Nile fox)
  • V. v. ochroxantha (Turkestan fox)
  • V. v. palaestina (Palestinian fox)
  • V. v. peculiosa (Korean fox)
  • V. v. pusilla (White-footed fox)
  • V. v. regalis (Northern plains fox)
  • V. v. rubricosa (Nova Scotia fox)
  • V. v. schrencki (Sakhalin fox)
  • V. v. silacea (Iberian fox)
  • V. v. splendidissima (Kuril Islands fox)
  • V. v. stepensis (Steppe red fox)
  • V. v. tobolica (Tobol'sk fox)
  • V. v. tschiliensis (Northern Chinese fox)
  • V. v. vulpes (Scandinavian red fox)
North America, Europe, Asia, and Australia
Size: 62–72 cm (24–28 in) long, plus 40 cm (16 in) tail

Habitat: Shrubland, grassland, inland wetlands, forest, and desert

Diet: Primarily eats small rodents, as well as birds, larger mammals, reptiles, insects, and fish
 LC 


Unknown Population steady

Swift fox

Gray fox on dirt

V. velox
Say, 1823
Western grasslands of North America
Size: 48–54 cm (19–21 in) long, plus 25–34 cm (10–13 in) tail

Habitat: Grassland

Diet: Primarily eats rabbits, mice, ground squirrels, birds, insects and lizards, as well as grasses and fruit
 LC 


Unknown Population steady

Tibetan fox

Painting of gay and brown fox

V. ferrilata
Hodgson, 1842
High plateaus in Nepal and western China
Size: 49–70 cm (19–28 in) long, plus 22–29 cm (9–11 in) tail

Habitat: Desert, rocky areas, grassland, and shrubland

Diet: Primarily eats pikas, as well as carrion and other small mammals
 LC 


Unknown Unknown

Urocyon

Genus Urocyon (Baird, 1857) – two species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
Gray fox

Gray fox on a rock

U. cinereoargenteus
Schreber, 1775

Sixteen subspecies
  • U. c. borealis
  • U. c. californicus
  • U. c. cinereoargenteus
  • U. c. costaricensis
  • U. c. floridanus
  • U. c. fraterculus
  • U. c. furvus
  • U. c. guatemalae
  • U. c. madrensis
  • U. c. nigrirostris
  • U. c. ocythous
  • U. c. orinomus
  • U. c. peninsularis
  • U. c. scottii
  • U. c. townsendi
  • U. c. venezuelae
North America and Central America
Size: 53–66 cm (21–26 in) long, plus 28–44 cm (11–17 in) tail

Habitat: Forest and shrubland

Diet: Primarily eats rabbits, voles, shrews, and birds, as well as insects and fruit
 LC 


Unknown Population steady

Island fox

Gray and red fox in shrubland

U. littoralis
Baird, 1857

Six subspecies
  • U. l. catalinae
  • U. l. clementae
  • U. l. dickeyi
  • U. l. littoralis
  • U. l. santacruzae
  • U. l. santarosae
Channel Islands of California
Size: 46–63 cm (18–25 in) long, plus 12–32 cm (5–13 in) tail

Habitat: Marine intertidal, forest, grassland, and shrubland

Diet: Primarily eats fruit, insects, birds, eggs, crabs, lizards, and small mammals
 NT 


4,000 Population increasing

Prehistoric canids

In addition to extant canids, a number of prehistoric species have been discovered and classified as a part of Canidae. Morphogenic and molecular phylogenic research has placed them within the extant subfamily Caninae as well as the extinct subfamilies Hesperocyoninae and Borophaginae. Within Caninae, prehistoric species have been placed into both extant genera and separate extinct genera.

The generally accepted classification of extinct canid species is primarily based for Hesperocyoninae on work by Xiaoming Wang, curator of terrestrial mammals at the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, and on work by Wang and zoologists Richard H. Tedford and Beryl E. Taylor for Borophaginae and Caninae. The species and classifications listed below are all from these works; exceptions due to more recently-described species are also listed with citations. Not all of these classifications are universally accepted, and alternate classifications for species are noted below. Where available, the approximate time period the species was extant is given in millions of years before the present (Mya), based on data from the Paleobiology Database. All listed species are extinct; where a genus, subtribe, or tribe within Caninae comprises only extinct species, it is indicated with a dagger symbol Extinct.

Subfamily Caninae

Restoration of C. dirus (Dire wolf)
Restoration of C. arnensis (Arno River dog)
Restoration of C. etruscus (Etruscan wolf)
Restoration of C. othmani
  • Tribe Vulpini
    • Genus FerrucyonExtinct
      • F. avius (4.9–2.6 Mya)
    • Genus MetalopexExtinct (10–4.9 Mya)
      • M. bakeri (10–4.9 Mya)
      • M. macconnelli (10–5.3 Mya)
      • M. merriami (10–5.3 Mya)
    • Genus Prototocyon
      • P. curvipalatus
      • P. recki
    • Genus Vulpes
      • V. alopecoides (2.5–0.13 Mya)
      • V. angustidens
      • V. beihaiensis
      • V. chikushanensis
      • V. galaticus
      • V. praecorsac (3.2–0.78 Mya)
      • V. praeglacialis
      • V. riffautae
      • V. skinneri
      • V. stenognathus (14–0.3 Mya)
      • V. qiuzhudingi
  • Urocyon
    • Genus Urocyon
      • U. minicephalus (1.8–0.3 Mya)
      • U. progressus (4.9–1.8 Mya)
  • Basal Caninae
    • Genus LeptocyonExtinct (31–10 Mya)
      • L. delicatus (31–20 Mya)
      • L. douglassi (31–26 Mya)
      • L. gregorii (25–20 Mya)
      • L. leidyi (20–14 Mya)
      • L. matthewi (14–10 Mya)
      • L. mollis (31–20 Mya)
      • L. tejonensis (14–10 Mya)
      • L. vafer (14–10 Mya)
      • L. vulpinus (20–16 Mya)
  • Unclassified

Subfamily Borophaginae

Restoration of Mesocyon
Restoration of Tephrocyon
  • Tribe Borophagini (26–1.8 Mya)
    • Genus Cormocyon (26–20 Mya)
      • C. copei (26–20 Mya)
      • C. haydeni (25–20 Mya)
    • Genus Desmocyon (20–16 Mya)
      • D. matthewi (20–16 Mya)
      • D. thomsoni (20–16 Mya)
    • Genus Euoplocyon (20–14 Mya)
      • E. brachygnathus (16–14 Mya)
      • E. spissidens (20–16 Mya)
    • Genus Metatomarctus (20–16 Mya)
      • M. canavus (20–16 Mya)
    • Genus Microtomarctus (16–14 Mya)
      • M. conferta (16–14 Mya)
    • Genus Protomarctus (16–14 Mya)
      • P. optatus (16–14 Mya)
    • Genus Psalidocyon (16–14 Mya)
      • P. marianae (16–14 Mya)
    • Genus Tephrocyon (16–14 Mya)
      • T. rurestris (16–14 Mya)
    • Subtribe Aelurodontina (16–5.3 Mya)
      • Genus Aelurodon (16–5.3 Mya)
        • A. asthenostylus (16–14 Mya)
        • A. ferox (14–10 Mya)
        • A. mcgrewi (16–14 Mya)
        • A. montanensis (16–14 Mya)
        • A. stirtoni (14–10 Mya)
        • A. taxoides (10–5.3 Mya)
      • Genus Tomarctus (16–14 Mya)
        • T. brevirostris (16–14 Mya)
        • T. hippophaga (16–14 Mya)
    • Subtribe Borophagina (16–1.8 Mya)
    • Subtribe Cynarctina (16–10 Mya)
      • Genus Cynarctus (16–10 Mya)
        • C. crucidens (12–10 Mya)
        • C. galushai (16–14 Mya)
        • C. marylandica (16–14 Mya)
        • C. saxatilis (16–14 Mya)
        • C. voorhiesi (14–10 Mya)
        • C. wangi (16–14 Mya)
      • Genus Paracynarctus (16–14 Mya)
        • P. kelloggi (16–14 Mya)
        • P. sinclairi (16–14 Mya)
  • Tribe Phlaocyonini (30.8–13.6 Mya)
    • Genus Cynarctoides (31–14 Mya)
      • C. acridens (20–14 Mya)
      • C. emryi (20–16 Mya)
      • C. gawnae (20–16 Mya)
      • C. harlowi (25–20 Mya)
      • C. lemur (31–20 Mya)
      • C. luskensis (25–20 Mya)
      • C. roii (31–26 Mya)
    • Genus Phlaocyon (31–16 Mya)
      • P. achoros (25—20 Mya)
      • P. annectens (25–20 Mya)
      • P. latidens (31–20 Mya)
      • P. leucosteus (20–16 Mya)
      • P. mariae(20–16 Mya)
      • P. marslandensis (20–16 Mya)
      • P. minor (25–16 Mya)
      • P. multicuspus (25–20 Mya)
      • P. taylori (31–25 Mya)
      • P. yatkolai (20–16 Mya)
  • Basal Borophaginae
    • Genus Archaeocyon (31–20 Mya)
      • A. falkenbachi (31–20 Mya)
      • A. leptodus (31–26 Mya)
      • A. pavidus (31–26 Mya)
    • Genus Otarocyon (34–26 Mya)
      • O. cooki (31–26 Mya)
      • O. macdonaldi (34–33 Mya)
    • Genus Oxetocyon (33–31 Mya)
      • O. cuspidatus (33–31 Mya)
    • Genus Rhizocyon (31–20 Mya)
      • R. oregonensis (31–20 Mya)

Subfamily Hesperocyoninae

Restoration of H. gregarius
Restoration of Hesperocyon head
  • Genus Cynodesmus (31–20 Mya)
    • C. martini (31–20 Mya)
    • C. thooides (31–26 Mya)
  • Genus Caedocyon (31–20 Mya)
    • C. tedfordi (31–20 Mya)
  • Genus Ectopocynus (31–16 Mya)
    • E. antiquus (31–20 Mya)
    • E. intermedius (31–20 Mya)
    • E. siplicidens (20–16 Mya)
  • Genus Enhydrocyon (31–20 Mya)
    • E. basilatus (25–20 Mya)
    • E. crassidens (26–20 Mya)
    • E. pahinsintewkpa (26–20 Mya)
    • E. stenocephalus (31–20 Mya)
  • Genus Hesperocyon (37–31 Mya)
    • H. coloradensis (34–33 Mya)
    • H. gregarius (37–31 Mya)
  • Genus Mesocyon (33–20 Mya)
    • M. brachyops (31–20 Mya)
    • M. coryphaeus (31–20 Mya)
    • M. temnodon (33–20 Mya)
  • Genus Osbornodon (33–14 Mya)
    • O. brachypus (20–16 Mya)
    • O. fricki (16–14 Mya)
    • O. iamonensis (20–16 Mya)
    • O. renjiei (33–31 Mya)
    • O. scitulus (21–16 Mya)
    • O. sesnoni (31–20 Mya)
    • O. wangi (31–20 Mya)
  • Genus Paraenhydrocyon (25–20 Mya)
    • P. josephi (25–20 Mya)
    • P. robustus (25–20 Mya)
    • P. wallovianus (25–20 Mya)
  • Genus Philotrox (31–26 Mya)
    • P. condoni (31–26 Mya)
  • Genus Prohesperocyon (37–34 Mya)
    • P. wilsoni (37–34 Mya)
  • Genus Sunkahetanka (31–26 Mya)
    • S. geringensis (31–26 Mya)

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