Detailed Pedia

List of horseshoe bats

Horseshoe bats are bats in the family Rhinolophidae, which is in the superfamily Rhinolophoidea. All extant horseshoe bats are in the genus Rhinolophus. There is one extinct genus of horseshoe bats, Palaeonycteris. As of 2019, there were 106 described species in Rhinolophus, making it the second-most speciose genus of bat after Myotis.[1]

Conventions

IUCN Red List categories
Conservation status
 EX Extinct (0 species)
 EW Extinct in the wild (0 species)
 CR Critically endangered (1 species)
 EN Endangered (7 species)
 VU Vulnerable (6 species)
 NT Near threatened (8 species)
 LC Least concern (52 species)
Other categories
 DD Data deficient (13 species)
 NE Not evaluated (17 species)

Conservation statuses listed for each species follow the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species. The Increase symbol indicates that the species's population trend is positive, the Decrease symbol indicates that the species's population trend is negative, the Steady symbol indicates that the species's population is stable, and the Question? symbol indicates that the species's population trend is unknown. Population trends are based on the Red List of Threatened Species. The super-scripted "IUCN" tag is a link to that species's Red List of Threatened Species page. If a species has taxonomic synonyms, a list of these is provided in the "Scientific name" column, underneath the binomial name and author. If a species has subspecies, a list of these is provided in the "Common name" column, underneath the common name.

Palaeonycteris

  • Palaeonycteris robustus: known only from fossils.[2]

Rhinolophus

Rhinolophus can be informally divided into two clades: the predominantly African clade and the predominantly Oriental clade.[3]

African clade

Subgenus Rhinolophus

Subgenus Rhinolophus – 8 species groups[a], 38 species
Species group R. adami – 2 species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Adam's horseshoe bat R. adami[6][7]
Aellen & Brosset, 1968
hDD IUCN Question? Endemic to Republic of the Congo
Maendeleo horseshoe bat
(Tanzanian horsehoe bat)
R. maendeleo[8][9]
Kock, Csorba & Howell, 2000
hDD IUCN Question? Caves of the Coastal Lowland forests of Tanzania
Species group R. capensis – 6 species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Cape horseshoe bat R. capensis[10][11]
Lichtenstein, 1823

aLC IUCN Steady Endemic to Cape Province in South Africa Dark or pale brown fur over most of the body, with paler, fawn-grey, underparts
Dent's horseshoe bat

R. denti[10][12]
Thomas, 1904
aLC IUCN Question? Angola, Botswana, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Namibia, South Africa, and Zimbabwe
Bushveld horseshoe bat

R. simulator[10][13]
K.Andersen, 1904

aLC IUCN Decrease Botswana, Cameroon, Ivory Coast, Ethiopia, Guinea, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria, South Africa, South Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe
Swinny's horseshoe bat R. swinnyi[10][14]
Gough, 1908
aLC IUCN Question? Angola, Republic of the Congo, Mozambique, South Africa, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe
Roberts’ horseshoe bat R. rhodesiae[15]
Roberts, 1946
iNE

(Least horseshoe bat)
R. gorongosae[15]
Taylor, Macdonald, Goodman, Kearney, Cotterill, Stoffberg, Monadjem, Schoeman, Guyton, Naskrecki & Richards, 2018
iNE
Species group R. euryale – 2 species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Mediterranean horseshoe bat

R. euryale[16]
Blasius, 1853
bNT IUCN Decrease In northwestern Africa, southern Europe to east to Turkmenistan and Iran, south to Israel; Mediterranean Islands Fluffy, light-grey based fur.
Mehely's horseshoe bat

R. mehelyi[17]
Matschie, 1901
cVU IUCN Decrease Around the Mediterranean Sea from North-Western Africa across Portugal, Spain, the Balearics, southern France, Sardinia, Sicily and the Balkan Peninsula to Asia Minor Dorsal fur grey-brown, ventral fur white
Species group R. ferrumquinum – 10 species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Bokhara horseshoe bat R. bocharicus[18]
Kastschenko & Akimov, 1917
aLC IUCN Steady In Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and possibly in Iran and Pakistan Bokhara horseshoe bat skin, front and back
Geoffroy's horseshoe bat

R. clivosus[19]
Cretzschmar, 1828
aLC IUCN Question? Throughout Africa, extending into the Arabian Peninsula Medium sized for an African horseshoe bat
Damara horseshoe bat R. damarensis[20]
Roberts, 1946
aLC IUCN Question? In Angola, Namibia, and South Africa.
Darling's horseshoe bat R. darlingi[21]
K. Andersen, 1905
aLC IUCN Question? In southern Africa: Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eswatini, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe; also in Lesotho and Nigeria
Decken's horseshoe bat R. deckenii[22]
Peters, 1867
bNT IUCN Decrease In Kenya and Tanzania Skin of Decken's horseshoe bat
Greater horseshoe bat

R. ferrumequinum[23]
(Schreber, 1774)
aLC IUCN Decrease From North Africa and southern Europe through south-west Asia, the Caucasus, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan and the Himalayas to south-eastern China, Korea, and Japan The greater horseshoe bat is the largest horseshoe bat in Europe
Hills' horseshoe bat
(Upland horseshoe bat)
R. hillorum[24][25]
(Koopman, 1989)
bNT IUCN Decrease In Cameroon, Guinea, Liberia, and Nigeria
Sakeji horseshoe bat R. sakejiensis[26][25]
Cotterill, 2002
hDD IUCN Question? Endemic to Zambia Grosse Hufeisennase-drawing.jpg
Forest horseshoe bat R. silvestris[27]
Aellen, 1959
hDD IUCN Decrease In Republic of the Congo and Gabon
Horáček's horseshoe bat R. horaceki[k][29]
Benda & Vallo, 2012
iNE In Cyrenaica, Libya.
Species group R. fumigatus – 2 species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Eloquent horseshoe bat

R. eloquens[30]
K. Andersen, 1905
aLC IUCN Question? In Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Somalia, South Sudan, Tanzania, and Uganda Naturalis Biodiversity Center - ZMA.MAM.20842.a pal - Rhinolophus eloquens - skull.jpeg
Rüppell's horseshoe bat

R. fumigatus[31]
Rüppell, 1842
aLC IUCN Question? Endemic to Africa, south of the Sahara Rhinolophus fumigatus, Limpopo.jpg
Species group R. hildebrandtii – 5 species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Cohen's horseshoe bat R. cohenae[5]
Taylor, Stoffberg, Monadjem, Schoeman, Bayliss and Cotterill, 2012
cVU IUCN Decrease In South African province of Mpumalanga
Hildebrandt's horseshoe bat R. hildebrandtii[32]
Peters, 1878
aLC IUCN Question? In Botswana, Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe
Mount Mabu horseshoe bat R. mabuensis[5]
Taylor, Stoffberg, Monadjem, Schoeman, Bayliss and Cotterill, 2012
dEN IUCN Question? In Mozambique
Mozambican horseshoe bat R. mossambicus[5]
Taylor, Stoffberg, Monadjem, Schoeman, Bayliss and Cotterill, 2012
aLC IUCN Decrease In Mozambique and Zimbabwe
Smithers's horseshoe bat R. smithersi[5]
Taylor, Stoffberg, Monadjem, Schoeman, Bayliss and Cotterill, 2012
bNT IUCN Steady In South Africa and Zimbabwe Rhinolophus smithersi.jpg
Species group R. landeri – 5 species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Halcyon horseshoe bat R. alcyone[33]
Temminck, 1852
aLC IUCN Question? In Cameroon, Republic of the Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ivory Coast, Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Liberia, Nigeria, Senegal, South Sudan, Togo, Uganda, possibly Gabon, and possibly Sierra Leone
Blasius's horseshoe bat

R. blasii[34]
Peters, 1866
aLC IUCN Decrease Throughout large parts of the Mediterranean, Middle East and Northern Africa Rhinolopus blasii.png
Guinean horseshoe bat R. guineensis[35]
Eisentraut, 1960
cVU IUCN Question? Ivory Coast, Guinea, Liberia, Senegal, and Sierra Leone
Lander's horseshoe bat

R. landeri[36]
Martin, 1837
aLC IUCN Question? Sub-Saharan Africa Rhinolophus landeri.jpg
Peters’ horseshoe bat R. lobatus[15]
Peters, 1852
iNE from Sudan and Ethiopia south to Transvaal, Zanzibar
Species group R. maclaudi – 6 species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Hill's horseshoe bat R. hilli[37]
Aellen, 1973
eCR IUCN Decrease Endemic to Rwanda
Maclaud's horseshoe bat R. maclaudi[38]
Pousargues, 1897
dEN IUCN Decrease Endemic to Guinea
Ruwenzori horseshoe bat R. ruwenzorii[39]
Hill, 1942
cVU IUCN Decrease In Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, and Uganda
Ziama horseshoe bat R. ziama[37]
Fahr, Vierhaus, Hütterer & Kock, 2002
dEN IUCN Decrease In Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia
Willard's horseshoe bat R. willardi[40]
Kerbis Peterhans & Fahr, 2013
iNE In eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo
Kahuzi horseshoe bat R. kahuzi[40]
Fahr & Kerbis Peterhans, 2013
iNE In eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo

Oriental clade

Subgenus Aquias

Subgenus Aquias – 1 species group, 9 species
Species group R. trifoliatus – 9 species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Lesser woolly horseshoe bat
(Beddome's horseshoe bat)

R. beddomei[41]
Andersen, 1905[42]
aLC IUCN Steady In India and Sri Lanka Lesser Woolly Horseshoe Bat (Rhinolophus beddomei).jpg
Formosan woolly horseshoe bat R. formosae[43]
Sanborn, 1939
aLC IUCN Decrease Endemic to Taiwan
Woolly horseshoe bat

R. luctus[44]
Temminck, 1835
aLC IUCN Question? In Bangladesh, Brunei, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Vietnam Rhinolophus luctus ras.jpg
R. luctoides[45][r]
Volleth, Loidl, Mayer, Yong, Müller & Heller, 2015
iNE Recorded in Malaysia
R. morio[45][r]
Gray, 1842
iNE In Malay Peninsula, northern Sumatra
R. lanosus[46][r]
Andersen, 1905
iNE In southeastern China
Lesser woolly horseshoe bat R. sedulus[47][48]
Andersen, 1905
bNT IUCN Decrease In Brunei, Indonesia, and Malaysia
Trefoil horseshoe bat

R. trifoliatus[49]
Temminck, 1834
aLC IUCN Question? In Brunei, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Singapore, and Thailand Rhinolophus trifoliatus.jpg
Francis’ woolly horseshoe bat

R. francisi[50]
Soisook, Struebig, Bates & Miguez, 2015
iNE In Malaysia and Thailand

Subgenus Phyllorhina

Subgenus Phyllorhina – 1 species group, 1 species
Species group R. hipposideros – 1 species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Lesser horseshoe bat

R. hipposideros[51]
(Bechstein, 1800)
aLC IUCN Decrease In Europe, North Africa, Asia Minor, Kashmir, Iran, Iraq, Arabian Peninsula, and East Africa Bat(20070605).jpg

Subgenus Indorhinolophus

Subgenus Indorhinolophus – 1 species group, 4 species
Species group R. rouxi – 4 species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Rufous horseshoe bat

R. rouxii[52]
Temminck, 1835
aLC IUCN Question? In China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam Male in breeding season
R. indorouxii[53]
Chattopadhyay, Garg, Kumar, Doss, Ramakrishnan, & Kandula, 2012
hDD IUCN Question? In Southern India
Chinese rufous horseshoe bat
(Chinese Horseshoe Bat)

R. sinicus[54]
K. Andersen, 1905
aLC IUCN Question? In China, India, Nepal, and Vietnam Naturalis Biodiversity Center - RMNH.MAM.33160.b ven - Rhinolophus sinicus - skin.jpeg
Thomas's horseshoe bat R. thomasi[55]
K. Andersen, 1905
aLC IUCN Question? In China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam

Subgenus Coelophyllus

Subgenus Coelophyllus – 2 species groups, 17 species
Species group R. pearsonii – 4 species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Chiewkwee's horseshoe bat R. chiewkweeae[56] [ab]
Yoshiyuki & Lim, 2005
iNE In Malaysia
Pearson's horseshoe bat R. pearsonii[57]
Horsfield, 1851
aLC IUCN Question? In Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand, and Vietnam Rhinolophus pearsonii.jpg
R. thailandensis[58]
Wu, Harada & Motokawa, 2009
iNE In Thailand
Dobson's horseshoe bat R. yunanensis[59]
Dobson, 1872
aLC IUCN Question? In China, India, Myanmar, and Thailand
Species group R. euryotis – 13 species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Arcuate horseshoe bat
(Andersen's horseshoe bat)

R. arcuatus[60]
Peters, 1871
aLC IUCN Steady In Indonesia, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, and the Philippines Kelawar ladam2.jpg
R. belligerator[61]
Patrick, McCulloch, Ruedas, 2013
dEN IUCN Question? On Sulawesi Island
Canut's horseshoe bat

R. canuti[62]
Thomas & Wroughton, 1909
cVU IUCN Decrease Endemic to Indonesia Naturalis Biodiversity Center - RMNH.MAM.32724.b reg - Rhinolophus canuti - skin.jpeg
Croslet horseshoe bat R. coelophyllus[63]
Peters, 1867
aLC IUCN Question? In Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, and Thailand
Creagh's horseshoe bat

R. creaghi[64]
Thomas, 1896
aLC IUCN Decrease In Indonesia and Malaysia Naturalis Biodiversity Center - RMNH.MAM.33449 lat - Rhinolophus creaghi - skull.jpeg
Broad-eared horseshoe bat

R. euryotis[65]
Temminck, 1835
aLC IUCN Question? In Indonesia and Papua New Guinea Rhinolophus euryotis illustration.jpg
Philippine forest horseshoe bat R. inops[66]
K. Andersen, 1905
aLC IUCN Steady Endemic to the Philippines
R. mcintyrei[67][61]
Hill & Schlitter, 1982
hDD IUCN Question? Endemic to Papua New Guinea
R. proconsulis[61]
Hill, 1959
dEN IUCN Question? In Indonesia and Malaysia
Large rufous horseshoe bat R. rufus[68]
Eydoux & Gervais, 1836
bNT IUCN Decrease Endemic to the Philippines Rhinolophus spec.jpg
Shamel's horseshoe bat R. shameli[69]
Tate, 1943
aLC IUCN Question? In Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam
Small rufous horseshoe bat

R. subrufus[70]
K. Andersen, 1905
hDD IUCN Question? Endemic to the Philippines on the island of Camiguin, Catanduanes, Luzon, Mindanao and Mindoro
R. tatar[71][61]
Bergmans and Rozendaal, 1982
aLC IUCN Question? On Sulawesi Island

Subgenus Rhinophyllotis

Subgenus Rhinophyllotis – 3 species groups, 31 species
Species group R. megaphyllus – 12 species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Intermediate horseshoe bat

R. affinis[73]
Horsfield, 1823
aLC IUCN Steady Throughout much of South Asia, southern and central China and Southeast Asia Rhinolophus affinis.jpg
Homfray’s Horseshoe Bat R. andamanensis[74]
Dobson, 1872
iNE Endemic to Andaman Islands
Bornean horseshoe bat

R. borneensis[75]
Peters, 1861
aLC IUCN Question? In Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, and Vietnam Bornean Horseshoe Bat (Rhinolophus borneensis) maybe? (7113337169).jpg
Sulawesi horseshoe bat

R. celebensis[76]
K. Andersen, 1905
aLC IUCN Question? Endemic to Indonesia Naturalis Biodiversity Center - RMNH.MAM.15058.b ven - Rhinolophus celebensis javanicus - skin.jpeg
Insular horseshoe bat
(Kai horseshoe bat)
R. keyensis
Peters, 1871
hDD IUCN Question? Endemic to Indonesia
Madura horseshoe bat R. madurensis
K. Andersen, 1918
cVU IUCN Decrease On Madura Island and the Kangean Islands in Indonesia
Malayan horseshoe bat R. malayanus[77]
Bonhote, 1903
aLC IUCN Steady In Cambodia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam
Smaller horseshoe bat
(Eastern horsehoe bat)

R. megaphyllus[80][79]
Gray, 1834
aLC IUCN Question? In Australia and Papua New Guinea Rhinolophus megaphyllus.jpg
Neriad horseshoe bat
(Anamban horsehoe bat)
R. nereis[81]
K. Andersen, 1905
hDD IUCN Question? On Anambas Islands and North Natuna Islands
Peninsular horseshoe bat R. robinsoni
K. Andersen, 1918
bNT IUCN Decrease In Malaysia and Thailand
Lesser brown horseshoe bat

R. stheno[82]
K. Andersen, 1905
aLC IUCN Steady In Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam Naturalis Biodiversity Center - RMNH.MAM.32722.b ven - Rhinolophus stheno - skin.jpeg
Yellow-faced horseshoe bat R. virgo[83]
K. Andersen, 1905
aLC IUCN Steady Endemic to the Philippines
Species group R. philippinensis – 7 species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Big-eared horseshoe bat

R. macrotis[84]
Blyth, 1844
aLC IUCN Steady In China, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam
Marshall's horseshoe bat R. marshalli[85]
Thonglongya, 1973
aLC IUCN Question? In Laos, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam
Timorese horseshoe bat R. montanus[86]
Goodwin, 1979
dEN IUCN Question? Endemic to Timor-Leste
Bourret's horseshoe bat R. paradoxolophus[87]
Bourret, 1951
aLC IUCN Question? In northern and central Vietnam, southwest China, central Thailand, and northern and central Laos
Large-eared horseshoe bat

R. philippinensis[89]
Waterhouse, 1843
aLC IUCN Question? In Australia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, and the Philippines Rhinolophus philippinensis.jpg
King horseshoe bat R. rex[90]
G. M. Allen, 1923
aLC IUCN Decrease Endemic to the east coast of China
Schnitzler's horseshoe bat R. schnitzleri[91]
Wu & Thong, 2011
hDD IUCN Question? Endemic to Yunnan, China
Species group R. pusillus – 12 species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Acuminate horseshoe bat
(Accuminate horseshoe bat)

R. acuminatus[93][94]
Peters, 1871
aLC IUCN Question? In Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand Naturalis Biodiversity Center - RMNH.MAM.15051.b ven - Rhinolophus acuminatus acuminatus - skin.jpeg
Andaman horseshoe bat

R. cognatus[95]
K. Andersen, 1906
dEN IUCN Decrease Endemic to the Andaman Islands
Convex horseshoe bat R. convexus[96][97]
Csorba, 1997
hDD IUCN Question? In Malaysia and Laos
Little Japanese horseshoe bat

R. cornutus[98]
Temminck, 1834
iNE In Japan and possibly in China Naturalis Biodiversity Center - RMNH.MAM.20927.b ven - Rhinolophus cornutus - skin.jpeg
Imaizumi's horseshoe bat R. imaizumii[99][100][101]
Hill & Yoshiyuki, 1980
iNE On Ishigaki-jima, Japan
R. perditus[101]
K. Andersen, 1918
iNE On Iriomote Island, Japan
Blyth's horseshoe bat

R. lepidus[102]
Blyth, 1844
aLC IUCN Question? Across southern Asia from Afghanistan to Vietnam Rhinolophus lepidus by Davidraju.jpg
Formosan lesser horseshoe bat R. monoceros[103]
K. Andersen, 1905
iNE Endemic to Taiwan
Osgood's horseshoe bat R. osgoodi[104]
Sanborn, 1939
hDD IUCN Question? Endemic to China
Least horseshoe bat

R. pusillus[105]
Temminck, 1834
aLC IUCN Steady In China, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand and Vietnam Rhinolophus pusillus.jpg
Shortridge's horseshoe bat R. shortridgei[106]
K. Andersen, 1918
aLC IUCN Question? In northeast India, northern Myanmar, and southern China
Little Nepalese horseshoe bat R. subbadius[107]
Blyth, 1844
aLC IUCN Decrease In Bangladesh, China, India, Myanmar and Nepal, possibly in Bhutan

Incertae sedis

Several taxa are of uncertain placement, or incertae sedis

incertae sedis – 4 species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Range Picture
Mitred horseshoe bat R. mitratus[108]
Blyth, 1844
hDD IUCN Question? Endemic to India EB1911 Chiroptera Fig. 6.jpg
Thai horseshoe bat R. siamensis
Gyldenstolpe, 1917
aLC IUCN Question? In China, Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam
Indo-Chinese lesser brown horseshoe bat R. microglobosus
Csorba & Jenkins, 1998
aLC IUCN Steady In Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam
Wedge-sellaed horseshoe bat
(Southwestern China horseshoe bat)
R. xinanzhongguoensis[110]
Zhou, Guillén-Servent, Lim, Eger, Wang & Jiang, 2009
bNT IUCN Decrease In southwestern China

Notes

  1. ^ Csorba et al. described 7 species groups with R. hildebrandtii species included in R. fumigatus species group[4]; Taylor et al. by describing 4 new species separated R. hildebrandtii species group from R. fumigatus species group[5]
  2. ^ R. d. denti from Namibia and Zimbabwe to the Cape Province, R. d. knorri in Guinea, Ivory Coast, and Ghana[12]
  3. ^ R. s. simulator in eastern Africa from Ethiopia to Natal, R. s. alticolis in Guinea, Liberia, Nigeria, and Cameroon[13]
  4. ^ R. e. euryale in northwestern Africa, southern Europe to east to Turkmenistan and Iran; Mediterranean Islands; R. e. judaicus from Syria and south Iraq to Israel.[16]
  5. ^ a b Unidentifiable name.
  6. ^ R. m. mehelyiin Europe and Western Asia; R. m. tuneti in northern Africa[17]
  7. ^ R. c. clivosus in Yemen and Saudi Arabia; R. m. brachygnathus from Egypt and Israel to northeastern Libya and northern Sudan; R. c. schwartzi in southeastern Algeria and southwestern Libya; R. c. acrotis in Ethiopia, most of central and southern Sudan, Somalia; R. c. keniensis in southeastern Sudan, Uganda, Kenya, northern Tanzania; R. c. zuluensis in coastal South Africa; R. c. augur in southern Tanzania, Malawi, Zimbabwe, Botswana, and northern South Africa.[19]
  8. ^ R. f. ferrumequinum in Europe and northwestern Africa; R. f. creticum in Crete; R. f. irani in Iraq, Iran, and Turkmenistan; R. f. proximus from Afghanistan and Uzbekistan east to Kashmir; R. f. tragatus from northern India to eastern China; R. f. korai in Korea; R. f. nippon in Japan and eastern China.[23]
  9. ^ a b c d e nomen nudum
  10. ^ Renaming of R. unihastatus homorodalmasiensis (Daday, 1885)
  11. ^ A recent split from R. clivosis [28]
  12. ^ R. e. eloquens from Southern Sudan to eastern Zaire and northern Tanzania, Pemba and Zanzibar; R. e. perauritus in southern Somalia.[30]
  13. ^ R. f. fumigatus in Ethiopia; R. f. exsul from central Sudan to Tanzania; R. f. abae in northeastern Zaire; R. f. foxi from Central African Republic to Burkina Faso; R. f. diversus in Guinea, Sierra Leone, Gambia, and Senegal; R. f. aethiops from Zambia and Angole to the Cape Province, South Africa.[31]
  14. ^ R. b. blasii in northwestern Africa, southern Europe and southwestern Asia; R. b. meyeroehmi in Iran, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, and Pakistan; R. b. andreinii in Ethiopia and Somalia; R. b. empusa in southeastern Africa from southern Zaire to Transvaal.[34]
  15. ^ R. l. landeri from Gambia to Cameroon and south to the mouth of the Congo river; R. l. angolensis in western Angolan and perhaps Namibia.[36]
  16. ^ R. b. beddomei in southern India; R. b. sobrinus in Sri Lanka.[41]
  17. ^ R. l. luctus in southern Sumatra, Java, Bali; R. l. perniger in northern India, Myanmar, Vietnam, Laos, and northern Thailand; R. l. spurcus in Hainan, China; R. l. foetidus in Borneo.[44]
  18. ^ a b c A recent split from R. luctus [28]
  19. ^ R. t. trifoliatus in Sumatra, Java, and Borneo; R. t. edax from northeastern India, Thailand through the Malay Peninsula; R. t. niasensis in Nias; R. t. solitarius in Bangka.[49]
  20. ^ R. f. francisi in Malaysia; R. f. thailandicus in Thailand.[50]
  21. ^ R. h. hipposideros in Continental Europe to the eastern end of Black Sea; R. h. escalerae in north Africa; R. h. minimus from southern Europe to the eastern end of Mediterranean, including several islands and south to Ethiopia and Sudan; R. h. majori in Corsica; R. h. minutus in Britain and Ireland; R. h. midas from Transcaucasia and Iraq to Kazakhstan and Kashmir.[51]
  22. ^ Preoccupied by Vespertilio molossus minor Kerr,1792
  23. ^ Renaming of R. bihastatus kisnyiresiensis Daday, 1885
  24. ^ Not of R. intermedius Söderland, 1920
  25. ^ R. r. rouxii in peninsular India and southern Myanmar; R. r. rubidus in Sri Lanka.[52]
  26. ^ Error for R. rubidus Kelaart, 1850
  27. ^ R. s. sinicus in the Himalayas, northern Vietnam, southeastern China, and Sichuan; R. s. septentrionalis in Yunnan.[54]
  28. ^ A recent split from R. yunanensis [28]
  29. ^ R. a. arcuatus in northern Philippines; R. a. beccarii in Sumatra; R. a. exiguus in southern Phillippines; R. a. toxopei in Buru and Ambon; R. a. angustifolius in Wettar, Southwest Island, and Flores Sea.[60]
  30. ^ R. c. canuti in Java; R. c. timorensis in Timor.[62]
  31. ^ R. c. creaghi in Borneo; R. c. pilosus in Madura.[64]
  32. ^ R. e. euryotis from Seram Island to Tanimbar Islands; R. e. timidus from northern Moluccas through New Guinea to the Bismarcks; R. e. burius in Buru; R. e. praestans in Kai Islands; R. e. aruensis in Aru Islands. [65]
  33. ^ R. s. subrufus in northern and central Philippines; R. s. bunkeri in Mindanao.[70]
  34. ^ Preoccupied by R. rufus Eydoux & Gervais, 1836
  35. ^ R. a. affinis in Java; R. a. himalayanus in northern India and Nepal across northern Myanmar to southwestern China; R. a. macrurus in southeastern China through Vietnam and Thailand to southeastern Myanmar; R. a. hainanus in Hainan Island; R. a. tener in southwestern Myanmar; R. a. superans in Malay Peninsula and in Sumatra and Mentawai Islands; R. a. nesites on Anamba and North Natuna Islands; R. a. princeps in Lombok, Sumbawa, and Sumba.[72]
  36. ^ R. b. borneensis in Borneo; R. b. chaseni in Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, and Malaysia; R. b. importunus in Java; R. b. spadix in South Natuna and Karimata.[75]
  37. ^ R. c. celebensis in Sulawesi; R. c. javanicus in Java and Bali; R. c. parvus in Timor.[76]
  38. ^ Replacement name for R. robinsoni siamensis McFarlane & Blood 1986[78]
  39. ^ R. m. megaphyllus in eastern Australia; R. m. simplex from Lombok to Komodo; R. m. fallax in southeastern New Guinea and D'Entrecasteaux Islands; R. m. monachus in Louisiades; R. m. vandeuseni in northeastern New Guinea and Bismarck Archipelago; R. m. truncatus in Bacan Islands; R. m. nanus on Seram and nearby islands; R. m. annectens on Wetar; R. m. robinsoni in Malay Peninsula; R. m. thaianus in northern Thailand.[79]
  40. ^ R. s. stheno in Java, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, and Thailand south of the Isthmus of Kra; R. s. microglobosus in Thailand north of the Isthmus of Kra, Laos and Vietnam.[82]
  41. ^ R. m. macrotis in Nepal and India; R. m. episcopus in Sichuan, China; R. m. caldwelli in southeastern China and Vietnam; R. m. dohrni in Sumatra and Malaysia; R. m. hirsutus in the Philippines; R. m. topali in Pakistan.[84]
  42. ^ R. p. sanborni in Borneo; R. p. alleni in Mindoro; R. p. philippinensis on the remaining Philippines islands; R. p. maros in Sulawesi and New Guinea; R. p. achilles on Kai Islands; R. p. robertsi in northeastern Queensland. [88]
  43. ^ R. a. acuminatus in Java; R. a. sumatranus in Sumatra and Borneo; R. a. circe on Nias Island; R. a. calypso on Enggano Island; R. a. audax in Bali and Lombok.[92]
  44. ^ R. c. cognatus on south Andaman; R. c. famulus on north Andaman.[95]
  45. ^ R. c. cornutus on the main islands of Japan; R. c. pumilus on Okinawa; R. c. miyakonis on Miyako-jima; R. c. orii' on Amami Ōshima and Tokunoshima.[98]
  46. ^ R. l. lepidus in central and northeastern India; R. l. monticola in Afghanistan and northwestern India; R. l. feae in northern Myanmar and northern Thailand; R. l. refulgens in Malay Peninsula; R. l. cuneatus in Sumatra.[102]
  47. ^ R. p. pusillus in Java and Borneo; R. p. blythi in northwestern India; R. p. gracilis in southern India; R. p. szechuanus in northeastern India, Myanmar, southwestern China and Thailand; R. p. calidus in eastern China; R. p. parcus in Hainan; R. p. minutillus in Malay Peninsula and Anambas; R. p. pagi on Mentawai Islands.[102]
  48. ^ Preoccupied by Vespertilio ferrumequinum minor Kerr, 1792
  49. ^ Preoccupeid by Vespertilio ferrumequinum minitus Montagu, 1808
  50. ^ Replacement name for R. minutus Miller, 1900

References

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  2. ^ Lydekker 1885.
  3. ^ Stoffberg et al. 2010.
  4. ^ Csorba et al. 2003, p. xvi.
  5. ^ a b c d e Taylor et al. 2012.
  6. ^ Aellen & Brosset 1968.
  7. ^ Csorba et al. 2003, p. 4.
  8. ^ Kock et al. 2000.
  9. ^ Csorba et al. 2003, p. 5.
  10. ^ a b c d Bogdanowicz 1992.
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  12. ^ a b Csorba et al. 2003, p. 9.
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  14. ^ Csorba et al. 2003, p. 12.
  15. ^ a b c Taylor et al. 2018.
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  20. ^ Jacobs et al. 2013.
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  37. ^ a b Fahr et al. 2002.
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  40. ^ a b Kerbis Peterhans et al. 2013.
  41. ^ a b Csorba et al. 2003, p. 122.
  42. ^ Andersen 1905, p. 253.
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  45. ^ a b Volleth et al. 2015.
  46. ^ Volleth et al. 2017.
  47. ^ Csorba et al. 2003, p. 127.
  48. ^ Soisook et al. 2010.
  49. ^ a b Csorba et al. 2003, p. 128.
  50. ^ a b c d Soisook et al. 2015.
  51. ^ a b Csorba et al. 2003, p. 53.
  52. ^ a b Csorba et al. 2003, p. 115.
  53. ^ Chattopadhyay et al. 2012, p. 115.
  54. ^ a b Csorba et al. 2003, p. 118.
  55. ^ Csorba et al. 2003, p. 120.
  56. ^ Yoshiyuki & Lim 2005.
  57. ^ Csorba et al. 2003, p. 82.
  58. ^ Wu et al. 2009.
  59. ^ Csorba et al. 2003, p. 84.
  60. ^ a b Csorba et al. 2003, p. 18.
  61. ^ a b c d Patrick et al. 2013.
  62. ^ a b Csorba et al. 2003, p. 21.
  63. ^ Csorba et al. 2003, p. 23.
  64. ^ a b Csorba et al. 2003, p. 24.
  65. ^ a b Csorba et al. 2003, p. 26.
  66. ^ Csorba et al. 2003, p. 28.
  67. ^ Hill & Schlitter 1982.
  68. ^ Csorba et al. 2003, p. 29.
  69. ^ Csorba et al. 2003, p. 31.
  70. ^ a b Csorba et al. 2003, p. 32.
  71. ^ Bergmans & Rozendaal 1982.
  72. ^ Csorba et al. 2003, p. 66.
  73. ^ Csorba 2003, p. 66.
  74. ^ Srinivasulu et al. 2019.
  75. ^ a b Csorba et al. 2003, p. 69.
  76. ^ a b Csorba et al. 2003, p. 71.
  77. ^ Csorba et al. 2003, p. 73.
  78. ^ Corbet & Hill 1992, p. 101.
  79. ^ a b Csorba et al. 2003, pp. 74-75.
  80. ^ Gray 1834.
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  83. ^ Csorba et al. 2003, p. 80.
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  89. ^ Csorba et al. 2003, p. 92.
  90. ^ Csorba et al. 2003, p. 95.
  91. ^ Wu & Thong 2011.
  92. ^ Csorba et al. 2003, pp. 96-97.
  93. ^ Peters 1871.
  94. ^ Csorba et al. 2003, p. 96.
  95. ^ a b Csorba et al. 2003, p. 98.
  96. ^ Csorba 1997.
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  98. ^ a b Csorba et al. 2003, p. 101.
  99. ^ Hill & Yoshiyuki 1980.
  100. ^ Csorba et al. 2003, p. 103.
  101. ^ a b Wu et al. 2012.
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  110. ^ Zhou et al. 2009.

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