Detailed Pedia

List of mustelids

Six extant mustelid genera left-to-right, top-to-bottom: Martes, Meles, Lutra, Gulo, Mustela, and Mellivora

Mustelidae is a family of mammals in the order Carnivora, which includes weasels, badgers, otters, ferrets, martens, minks, and wolverines, and many other extant and extinct genera. A member of this family is called a mustelid; Mustelidae is the largest family in Carnivora, and its extant species are divided into eight subfamilies. They are found on all continents except Antarctica and Australia, and are a diverse family; sizes range, including tails, from the widespread 17 cm (7 in) least weasel to the 1.8-meter (6 ft) giant otter of Amazonian South America. Habitats vary widely as well, from the arboreal marten to the fossorial European badger to the marine sea otter. Population sizes are largely unknown, though one species, the sea mink, was hunted to extinction in 1894 and several other species are endangered. Some types have been domesticated, e.g. the ferret, a subspecies of the European polecat, and some populations of the South American tayra. Mustelidae is one of the oldest families in Carnivora; early mustelids first appeared around 28–33 million years ago.[1]

The 23 genera and 59 species of Mustelidae are split into 8 subfamilies: Guloninae, martens and wolverines; Helictidinae, ferret-badgers; Ictonychinae, African polecats and grisons; Lutrinae, otters; Melinae, Eurasian badgers; Mellivorinae, the honey badger; Mustelinae, weasels and minks; and Taxidiinae, the American badger. In addition to the extant subfamilies, Mustelidae includes three extinct subfamilies designated as Leptarctinae, Mustelavinae, and Oligobuninae. Extinct species have also been placed into all of the extant subfamilies besides Helictidinae, in both extant and extinct genera; around 200 extinct Mustelidae species have been found, as well as fossil genera not given a species name, though due to ongoing research and discoveries the exact number and categorization is not fixed.

Conventions

IUCN Red List categories
Conservation status
 EX Extinct (1 species)
 EW Extinct in the wild (0 species)
 CR Critically endangered (0 species)
 EN Endangered (7 species)
 VU Vulnerable (6 species)
 NT Near threatened (6 species)
 LC Least concern (37 species)
Other categories
 DD Data deficient (1 species)
 NE Not evaluated (0 species)

Conservation status codes listed follow the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species. Range maps are provided wherever possible; if a range map is not available, a description of the mustelid's range is provided. Ranges are based on the IUCN red list for that species unless otherwise noted. All extinct species or subspecies listed alongside extant species went extinct after 1500 CE, and are indicated by a dagger symbol "Extinct". Population figures are rounded to the nearest hundred.

Classification

The family Mustelidae consists of 59 extant species belonging to 23 genera and divided into hundreds of extant subspecies, as well the extinct sea mink, which is the only mustelid species to become extinct since prehistoric times. This does not include hybrid species or extinct prehistoric species. Modern molecular studies indicate that the 23 genera can be grouped into 8 subfamilies. Some prior classification schemes divided the family solely between the aquatic otters and all other species.

Subfamily Guloninae (Martens and wolverines)

Subfamily Helictidinae (Ferret-badgers)

Subfamily Ictonychinae (African polecats and grisons)

Subfamily Lutrinae (Otters)

Subfamily Melinae (Eurasian badgers)

Subfamily Mellivorinae (Honey badger)

Subfamily Mustelinae (Weasels and minks)

Subfamily Taxidiinae (American badger)

Mustelids

The following classification is based on the taxonomy described by Mammal Species of the World (2005), with augmentation by generally accepted proposals made since using molecular phylogenetic analysis; this includes reclassifying Guloninae, Helictidinae, Ictonychinae, Melinae, Mellivorinae, and Taxidiinae as subfamilies rather than as part of a paraphyletic group with Mustelinae. There are several additional proposals which are disputed, such as placing the Asian small-clawed otter as a monotypic genus Amblonyx instead of as part of Aonyx,[2] or separating the Cameroon clawless otter as a separate species from the African clawless otter, which are not included here.[3]

Subfamily Guloninae

Genus Eira (Hamilton Smith, 1842) – one species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
Tayra

Black mustelid with gray head

E. barbara
Linnaeus, 1758

Central America and northern South America
Tayra area.png
Size: 60–70 cm (24–28 in) long, plus 35–45 cm (14–18 in) tail[4]

Habitat: Forest and savanna[5]

Diet: Primarily eats fruit, carrion, small vertebrates, insects, and honey[5]
 LC 


Unknown Population declining[5]

Genus Gulo (Pallas, 1780) – one species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
Wolverine

Brown and black mustelid

G. gulo
Linnaeus, 1758

Arctic North America, Europe, and Asia
Gulo gulo distribution.svg
Size: 70–105 cm (28–41 in) long, plus 18–26 cm (7–10 in) tail[6]

Habitat: Rocky areas, shrubland, forest, and grassland[7]

Diet: Primarily eats carrion and small to large mammals[7]
 LC 


Unknown Population declining[7]

Genus Martes (Pinel, 1792) – seven species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
American marten

Brown mustelid in snow

M. americana
Turton, 1806

Northern North America
American Marten area.png
Size: 46–66 cm (18–26 in) long, plus 13–16 cm (5–6 in) tail[8]

Habitat: Forest[9]

Diet: Primarily eats rodents and small mammals, as well as birds, insects, fruit, and carrion[9]
 LC 


Unknown Population declining[9]

Beech marten

Brown and white mustelid indoors

M. foina
Erxleben, 1777

Europe and central Asia
Beech Marten area.png
Size: 40–50 cm (16–20 in) long, plus 22–30 cm (9–12 in) tail[10]

Habitat: Forest, rocky areas, and shrubland[11]

Diet: Primarily eats rodents and small mammals, as well as birds, insects, fruit, and carrion[11]
 LC 


Unknown Population steady[11]

European pine marten

Brown and black mustelid

M. martes
Linnaeus, 1758

Europe and west Asia
European Pine Marten area.png
Size: 48–58 cm (19–23 in) long, plus 16–28 cm (6–11 in) tail[12]

Habitat: Forest and shrubland[13]

Diet: Primarily eats small mammals, birds, and amphibians, as well as carrion[13]
 LC 


Unknown Population steady[13]

Japanese marten

Brown mustelid with a white head on a table

M. melampus
Wagner, 1841

Japan (M. m. melampus in green, M. m. tsuensis in red (Tsushima Island))
Japanese Marten area.png
Size: 47–55 cm (19–22 in) long, plus 17–22 cm (7–9 in) tail[14]

Habitat: Forest and shrubland[15]

Diet: Primarily eats fruit, small mammals, and insects[15]
 LC 


Unknown Population steady[15]

Nilgiri marten

Black and yellow mustelid on the ground

M. gwatkinsii
Horsfield, 1851
Parts of southern India
Nilgiri Marten area.png
Size: 55–65 cm (22–26 in) long, plus 40–45 cm (16–18 in) tail[16]

Habitat: Forest and grassland[17]

Diet: Primarily eats birds, small mammals, and insects[17]
 VU 


1,000 Population steady[17]

Sable

Brown mustelid in a tree

M. zibellina
Linnaeus, 1758

Large parts of Russia
Sable area.png
Size: 38–56 cm (15–22 in) long, plus 9–12 cm (4–5 in) tail[18]

Habitat: Forest[19]

Diet: Primarily eats small mammals, birds, nuts, and berries[19]
 LC 


2 million Population increasing[19]

Yellow-throated marten

Yellow and black mustelid on the ground

M. flavigula
Boddaert, 1785

Eastern and southeastern Asia
Yellow-throated Marten area.png
Size: 50–72 cm (20–28 in) long, plus 33–48 cm (13–19 in) tail[20]

Habitat: Forest and grassland[21]

Diet: Primarily eats birds, small mammals, and insects[21]
 LC 


Unknown Population declining[21]

Genus Pekania (Gray, 1865) – one species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
Fisher

Black and brown mustelid on the ground

P. pennanti
Erxleben, 1777
Northern North America
Fisher area.png
Size: 75–120 cm (30–47 in) long, plus 31–41 cm (12–16 in) tail[22]

Habitat: Forest[23]

Diet: Primarily eats small to medium mammals, birds, and carrion[23]
 LC 


Unknown Unknown[23]

Subfamily Helictidinae

Genus Melogale (I. Saint-Hilaire, 1831) – five species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
Bornean ferret-badger M. everetti
Thomas, 1895
Small parts of Borneo
Bornean Ferret-badger area.png
Size: 33–44 cm (13–17 in) long, plus 15–23 cm (6–9 in) tail[24]

Habitat: Forest and shrubland[25]

Diet: Primarily eats invertebrates, amphibians, insects, fruit, and carrion[24][25]
 EN 


Unknown Population declining[25]

Burmese ferret-badger

Mounted brown mustelid with green background

M. personata
I. Saint-Hilaire, 1831

Southeast Asia
Burmese Ferret-badger area.png
Size: 33–44 cm (13–17 in) long, plus 15–23 cm (6–9 in) tail[26]

Habitat: Grassland, shrubland, and forest[27]

Diet: Primarily eats insects and snails, as well as small mammals, frogs, lizards, carrion, birds, eggs, and fruit[26][27]
 LC 


Unknown Unknown[27]

Chinese ferret-badger

Painting of brown mustelid in a tree

M. moschata
Gray, 1831

East Asia
Chinese Ferret-badger area.png
Size: 30–43 cm (12–17 in) long, plus 15–21 cm (6–8 in) tail[28]

Habitat: Forest, shrubland, and grassland[29]

Diet: Primarily eats insects, frogs, and carrion[29]
 LC 


Unknown Population steady[29]

Javan ferret-badger

Black and white mustelid in straw

M. orientalis
Blanford, 1888

Parts of Java and Indonesia
Javan Ferret-badger area.png
Size: 35–40 cm (14–16 in) long, plus 14–17 cm (6–7 in) tail[30]

Habitat: Shrubland and forest[31]

Diet: Primarily eats invertebrates and insects[30][31]
 LC 


Unknown Unknown[31]

Vietnam ferret-badger M. cucphuongensis
T. Nadler, 2011
Vietnam Size: Unknown

Habitat: Forest[32]

Diet: Unknown[32]
 DD 


Unknown Unknown[32]

Subfamily Ictonychinae

Genus Galictis (Bell, 1826) – two species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
Greater grison

Black mustelid under rock

G. vittata
Schreber, 1776

Northern South America and Central America
Greater Grison area.png
Size: 60–76 cm (24–30 in) long, including tail[33]

Habitat: Forest and grassland[34]

Diet: Primarily eats small mammals, birds, lizards, amphibians, eggs, and fruit[34]
 LC 


Unknown Population steady[34]

Lesser grison

Brown and black mustelid on rocks

G. cuja
Molina, 1782

Southern South America
Lesser Grison area.png
Size: 28–51 cm (11–20 in) long, plus 12–20 cm (5–8 in) tail[35]

Habitat: Inland wetlands, forest, grassland, and savanna[36]

Diet: Primarily eats small lagomorphs and rodents, as well as birds, frogs, lizards, snakes, and eggs[36]
 LC 


Unknown Unknown[36]

Genus Ictonyx (Kaup, 1835) – two species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
Striped polecat

Brown and white stuffed mustelid with green background

I. striatus
Molina, 1782

Central, Southern, and sub-Saharan Africa
Striped Polecat area.png
Size: 28–30 cm (11–12 in) long, plus 20–30 cm (8–12 in) tail[37]

Habitat: Grassland, savanna, desert, and shrubland[38]

Diet: Primarily eats insects[38]
 LC 


Unknown Unknown[38]

Saharan striped polecat

Drawing of black and white mustelid on grass

I. libycus
Hemprich and Ehrenberg, 1833

Northern, western, and southern edges of the Sahara
Saharan Striped Polecat area.png
Size: 40–47 cm (16–19 in) long, plus 16–19 cm (6–7 in) tail[39]

Habitat: Shrubland and desert[40]

Diet: Primarily eats rodents, small mammals, birds, fish, and insects[39][40]
 LC 


Unknown Unknown[40]

Genus Lyncodon (Gervais, 1845) – one species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
Patagonian weasel

Brown and white stuffed mustelid on a rock

L. patagonicus
Blainville, 1842

Argentina
Patagonian Weasel area.png
Size: 30–35 cm (12–14 in) long, plus 6–9 cm (2–4 in) tail[41]

Habitat: Shrubland, grassland, and forest[42]

Diet: Primarily eats rodents and birds[42]
 LC 


Unknown Unknown[42]

Genus Poecilogale (Thomas, 1883) – one species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
African striped weasel

Black and white mustelid on a log

P. albinucha
Gray, 1864

Southern Africa
African Striped Weasel area.png
Size: 25–36 cm (10–14 in) long, plus 13–23 cm (5–9 in) tail[43]

Habitat: Shrubland, forest, savanna, and grassland[44]

Diet: Primarily eats small mammals, rodents, and birds, as well as snakes and insects[43][44]
 LC 


Unknown Unknown[44]

Genus Vormela (Blasius, 1884) – one species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
Marbled polecat

Black and white mustelid with a yellow and brown back on a rock

V. peregusna
Güldenstädt, 1864

Southeast Europe and central Asia
Marbled Polecat area.png
Size: 28–48 cm (11–19 in) long, plus 14–20 cm (6–8 in) tail[45]

Habitat: Desert, rocky areas, grassland, and shrubland[46]

Diet: Primarily eats rodents and birds[46]
 VU 


Unknown Population declining[46]

Subfamily Lutrinae

Genus Aonyx (Lesson, 1827) – two species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
African clawless otter

Brown and white mustelid in grass

A. capensis
Schinz, 1821

Sub-Saharan Africa
African Clawless Otter area.png
Size: 72–95 cm (28–37 in) long, plus 40–60 cm (16–24 in) tail[47]

Habitat: Forest, inland wetlands, neritic marine, coastal marine, intertidal marine, and grassland[48]

Diet: Primarily eats crabs and lobsters, as well as frogs, fish, and insects[47][48]
 NT 


Unknown Population declining[48]

Asian small-clawed otter

Brown mustelid on a mossy rock

A. cinerea
Illiger, 1815

Southeast Asia
Oriental Small-clawed Otter area.png
Size: 40–63 cm (16–25 in) long, plus 25–35 cm (10–14 in) tail[49]

Habitat: Intertidal marine, coastal marine, inland wetlands, forest, shrubland, neritic marine, and grassland[50]

Diet: Primarily eats crabs, molluscs, insects, and small fish, as well as rodents, snakes, and amphibians[50]
 VU 


Unknown Population declining[50]

Genus Enhydra (Fleming, 1828) – one species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
Sea otter

Brown mustelid on its back in water

E. lutris
Linnaeus, 1758

Western North American coast, eastern Russian coast, northern Japanese coast
Cypron-Range Enhydra lutris.svg
Size: 55–130 cm (22–51 in) long, plus 12–33 cm (5–13 in) tail[51]

Habitat: Neritic marine and oceanic marine[52]

Diet: Primarily eats marine invertebrates, as well as fish[52]
 EN 


125,000 Population declining[52]

Genus Hydrictis (Pocock, 1921) – one species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
Spotted-necked otter

Gray mustelid on a rock

H. maculicollis
Lichtenstein, 1835
Much of sub-Saharan Africa
Spotted-necked Otter area.png
Size: 57–69 cm (22–27 in) long, plus 33–44 cm (13–17 in) tail[53]

Habitat: Inland wetlands, neritic marine, forest, coastal marine, and intertidal marine[54]

Diet: Primarily eats frogs, crabs and small water birds[53][54]
 NT 


Unknown Population declining[54]

Genus Lontra (Gray, 1843) – four species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
North American river otter

Brown mustelid in grass

L. canadensis
Schreber, 1777

Canada and eastern and western America
LontraCanadensisMap.svg
Size: 66–107 cm (26–42 in) long, plus 31–46 cm (12–18 in) tail[55]

Habitat: Inland wetlands, intertidal marine, neritic marine, and coastal marine[56]

Diet: Primarily eats fish, as well as amphibians and crustaceans[56]
 LC 


Unknown Population steady[56]

Southern river otter

Brown mustelid on rocks

L. provocax
Thomas, 1908
Southern Chile and Argentina
Southern River Otter area.png
Size: 57–70 cm (22–28 in) long, plus 35–46 cm (14–18 in) tail[57]

Habitat: Inland wetlands, coastal marine, neritic marine, and intertidal marine[58]

Diet: Primarily eats fish and crustaceans[58]
 EN 


Unknown Population declining[58]

Neotropical otter

Brown mustelid on rocks

L. longicaudis
Olfers, 1818

South and Central America
Neotropical Otter area.png
Size: 50–79 cm (20–31 in) long, plus 37–57 cm (15–22 in) tail[59]

Habitat: Coastal marine, inland wetlands, neritic marine, and intertidal marine[60]

Diet: Primarily eats fish, as well as crustaceans, insects, amphibians, and molluscs[60]
 NT 


Unknown Population declining[60]

Marine otter

Brown mustelid on rock

L. felina
Molina, 1782
West coast of South America
Marine Otter area.png
Size: 57–79 cm (22–31 in) long, plus 30–36 cm (12–14 in) tail[61]

Habitat: Coastal marine, intertidal marine, oceanic marine, and neritic marine[62]

Diet: Primarily eats crustaceans and molluscs, as well as fish, birds, and small mammals[62]
 EN 


Unknown Population declining[62]

Genus Lutra (Brisson, 1762) – two species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
Eurasian otter

Brown and white mustelid on rock

L. lutra
Linnaeus, 1758

Europe, north Africa, and large regions of Asia
European Otter area.png
Size: 57–70 cm (22–28 in) long, plus 35–40 cm (14–16 in) tail[63]

Habitat: Inland wetlands, forest, grassland, coastal marine, neretic marine, intertidal marine, and shrubland[64]

Diet: Primarily eats fish, as well as insects, reptiles, amphibians, birds, small mammals, and crustaceans[64]
 NT 


Unknown Population declining[64]

Hairy-nosed otter

Brown mustelid on rock by water

L. sumatrana
Gray, 1865
Scattered parts of southeast Asia
Hairy-nosed Otter area.png
Size: 50–82 cm (20–32 in) long, plus 35–50 cm (14–20 in) tail[65]

Habitat: Inland wetlands, neritic marine, shrubland, grassland, forest, coastal marine, and intertidal marine[66]

Diet: Primarily eats fish and water snakes, as well as frogs, lizards, turtles, and crabs[66]
 EN 


Unknown Population declining[66]

Genus Lutrogale (Gray, 1865) – one species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
Smooth-coated otter

Gray and yellow mustelid on dirt

L. perspicillata
Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1826

South and southeast Asia
Smooth-coated Otter area.png
Size: 65–79 cm (26–31 in) long, plus 40–50 cm (16–20 in) tail[67]

Habitat: Inland wetlands, forest, grassland, coastal marine, neritic marine, intertidal marine, and shrubland[68]

Diet: Primarily eats fish, as well as shrimp, crabs, and insects[68]
 VU 


Unknown Population declining[68]

Genus Pteronura (Gray, 1837) – one species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
Giant otter

Large gray mustelid on a log

P. brasiliensis
Gmelin, 1788

North and central South America
Giant Otter area.png
Size: 96–123 cm (38–48 in) long, plus 45–65 cm (18–26 in) tail[69]

Habitat: Inland wetlands, coastal marine, neritic marine, and forest[70]

Diet: Primarily eats fish, as well as caiman and turtles[70]
 EN 


Unknown Population declining[70]

Subfamily Melinae

Genus Arctonyx (F.Cuvier, 1825) – one species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
Hog badger

Brown mustelid in forest

A. collaris
F. Cuvier, 1825

East and southeast Asia
Hog Badger area.png
Size: 55–70 cm (22–28 in) long, plus 12–17 cm (5–7 in) tail[71]

Habitat: Forest, grassland, shrubland, and savanna[72]

Diet: Believed to primarily eat worms[72]
 VU 


Unknown Population declining[72]

Genus Meles (Brisson, 1762) – three species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
Asian badger

Stuffed brown and white mustelid

M. leucurus
Hodgson, 1847

Central and east Asia
Asian Badger area.png
Size: 49–70 cm (19–28 in) long, plus 13–21 cm (5–8 in) tail[73]

Habitat: Shrubland, grassland, and forest[74]

Diet: Omnivorous; eats fruit, nuts, plants, earthworms, insects, eggs, carrion, and small mammals[74]
 LC 


Unknown Unknown[74]

European badger

Gray and white mustelid in grass

M. meles
Linnaeus, 1758

Europe and west Asia
European Badger area.png
Size: 56–90 cm (22–35 in) long, plus 11–20 cm (4–8 in) tail[75]

Habitat: Grassland, forest, desert, and shrubland[76]

Diet: Omnivorous; eats fruit, nuts, plants, earthworms, insects, eggs, carrion, and small mammals[76]
 LC 


Unknown Population steady[76]

Japanese badger

Brown and white mustelid on rocks

M. anakuma
Temminck, 1844
Japan
Japanese Badger area.png
Size: 70–79 cm (28–31 in) long, plus 14–20 cm (6–8 in) tail[77]

Habitat: Forest[78]

Diet: Primarily eats earthworms and insects, as well as fruit[78]
 LC 


Unknown Population declining[78]

Subfamily Mellivorinae

Genus Mellivora (Gottlieb Conrad Christian Storr, 1780) – one species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
Honey badger

Black and white mustelid in grass

M. capensis
Schreber, 1776

Africa, Middle East, and India
Mellivora capensis distribution.png
Size: 73–96 cm (29–38 in) long, plus 14–23 cm (6–9 in) tail[79]

Habitat: Forest, shrubland, savanna, and desert[80]

Diet: Primarily eats smaller mammals[80]
 LC 


Unknown Population declining[80]

Subfamily Mustelinae

Genus Mustela (Linnaeus, 1758) – seventeen species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
Amazon weasel M. africana
Desmarest, 1818

Amazon basin
Amazon Weasel area.png
Size: 41–52 cm (16–20 in) long, plus 16–21 cm (6–8 in) tail[81]

Habitat: Inland wetlands and forest[82]

Diet: Unknown[83][82]
 LC 


Unknown Unknown[82]

Back-striped weasel

Drawing of brown mustelid

M. strigidorsa
Gray, 1855
Parts of southeast Asia
Back-striped Weasel area.png
Size: 30–36 cm (12–14 in) long, plus 18–20 cm (7–8 in) tail[84]

Habitat: Forest and shrubland[85]

Diet: Unknown, but believed to eat rodents and insects[84][85]
 LC 


Unknown Population steady[85]

Black-footed ferret

Brown, black, and white mustelid on dirt

M. nigripes
Audubon, 1851
Three small areas in central United States
Black-footed Ferret area.png
Size: 50–53 cm (20–21 in) long, plus 11–13 cm (4–5 in) tail[86]

Habitat: Shrubland and grassland[87]

Diet: Primarily eats prairie dogs[87]
 EN 


200 Population declining[87]

Colombian weasel M. felipei
Izor and Torre, 1978
Small area of northwest South America
Colombian Weasel area.png
Size: 32–39 cm (13–15 in) long, plus 10–14 cm (4–6 in) tail[88]

Habitat: Inland wetlands and forest[89]

Diet: Unknown, but believed to eat fish, small mammals, and insects[90][89]
 VU 


1,300 Population declining[89]

Egyptian weasel

Brown and white mustelid lying on stones

M. subpalmata
Hemprich, 1833
Nile river delta in Egypt
Egyptian Weasel area.png
Size: 32–43 cm (13–17 in) long, plus 9–13 cm (4–5 in) tail[91]

Habitat: Urban, marine[92]

Diet: Primarily eats fruit and vegetables, birds, and insects[93][92]
 LC 


Unknown Population increasing[92]

European mink

Brown mustelid on log

M. lutreola
Linnaeus, 1761

Scattered parts of west Asia and west Europe
European Mink extant range.png
Size: 35–43 cm (14–17 in) long, plus 15–19 cm (6–7 in) tail[94]

Habitat: Inland wetlands[95]

Diet: Primarily eats amphibians, crustaceans, fish, small mammals, insects, and birds[95]
 CR 


Unknown Population declining[95]

European polecat

Brown and black mustelid on log

M. putorius
Linnaeus, 1758

Europe and west Asia
Mustela putorius distribution.svg
Size: 29–46 cm (11–18 in) long, plus 8–17 cm (3–7 in) tail[96]

Habitat: Inland wetlands, coastal marine, grassland, forest, and shrubland[97]

Diet: Primarily eats lagomorphs, rodents, amphibians, and other vertebrates, as well as invertebrates and carrion[97]
 LC 


Unknown Population declining[97]

Indonesian mountain weasel M. lutreolina
Robinson, 1917
Scattered parts of Indonesia
Indonesian Mountain Weasel area.png
Size: 27–33 cm (11–13 in) long, plus 13–17 cm (5–7 in) tail[98]

Habitat: Shrubland and forest[99]

Diet: Primarily eats rodents, as well as small mammals, birds, amphibians, and eggs[98][99]
 LC 


Unknown Population steady[99]

Japanese weasel

Brown mustelid on a tree

M. itatsi
Temminck, 1844
Japan (native range in blue, introduced in red (Hokkaido))
Japanese Weasel area.png
Size: 21–36 cm (8–14 in) long, plus 7–16 cm (3–6 in) tail[100]

Habitat: Shrubland, grassland, and forest[101]

Diet: Primarily eats rodents, insects, amphibians, and reptiles[101]
 NT 


Unknown Population declining[101]

Least weasel

Brown and white mustelid on log

M. nivalis
Linnaeus, 1766

Europe, Asia, northern Africa, northern North America
Least Weasel area.png
Size: 11–26 cm (4–10 in) long, plus 1–9 cm (0–4 in) tail[102]

Habitat: Forest, inland wetlands, rocky areas, coastal marine, shrubland, and grassland[103]

Diet: Primarily eats rodents and other small mammals as well as eggs, lizards, frogs, salamanders, fish, worms, and carrion[103]
 LC 


Unknown Population steady[103]

Long-tailed weasel

Brown and white mustelid standing in grass

M. frenata
Lichtenstein, 1831

North America, Central America, and northern South America
Long-tailed Weasel area.png
Size: 28–42 cm (11–17 in) long, plus 11–30 cm (4–12 in) tail[104]

Habitat: Inland wetlands, grassland, and shrubland[105]

Diet: Primarily eats rodents and other small mammals[105]
 LC 


Unknown Population steady[105]

Malayan weasel M. nudipes
Desmarest, 1822

Southeast Asia
Malayan Weasel area.png
Size: 30–36 cm (12–14 in) long, plus 24–26 cm (9–10 in) tail[106]

Habitat: Shrubland and forest[107]

Diet: Primarily eats rodents, as well as small birds, lizards, and insects[106][107]
 LC 


Unknown Population declining[107]

Mountain weasel

Brown and white mustelid standing on rocks

M. altaica
Pallas, 1811

Central Asia and northern India Size: 22–29 cm (9–11 in) long, plus 9–15 cm (4–6 in) tail[108]

Habitat: Shrubland, rocky areas, and grassland[109]

Diet: Primarily eats pikas, rodents, small birds, lizards, and insects[109]
 NT 


Unknown Population declining[109]

Siberian weasel

Brown mustelid on ground

M. sibirica
Pallas, 1773

North-central and east Asia (native range in green, introduced in red (Japan))
Siberian Weasel area.png
Size: 25–39 cm (10–15 in) long, plus 13–21 cm (5–8 in) tail[110]

Habitat: Grassland, shrubland, forest, and rocky areas[111]

Diet: Primarily eats small mammals, amphibians, fish, carrion, and pine nuts[111]
 LC 


Unknown Population steady[111]

Steppe polecat

Brown and white mustelid in grass

M. eversmanii
Lesson, 1827

Central Asia and eastern Europe
Steppe Polecat area.png
Size: 29–56 cm (11–22 in) long, plus 8–18 cm (3–7 in) tail[112]

Habitat: Grassland and shrubland[113]

Diet: Primarily eats rodents and pikas[113]
 LC 


Unknown Population declining[113]

Stoat

Brown and white mustelid in grass

M. erminea
Linnaeus, 1758

Europe, north Asia, northern North America, and Greenland (native range in green, introduced in red (New Zealand))
Stoat area.png
Size: 17–33 cm (7–13 in) long, plus 4–12 cm (2–5 in) tail[114]

Habitat: Shrubland, inland wetlands, grassland, rocky areas, and forest[115]

Diet: Primarily eats small mammals, as well as fruit, earthworms, insects, eggs, and birds[115]
 LC 


Unknown Population steady[115]

Yellow-bellied weasel

Black and yellow mustelid on rock

M. kathiah
Hodgson, 1835

Himalayan mountains and east-southeast Asia
Yellow-bellied Weasel area.png
Size: 25–27 cm (10–11 in) long, plus 12–15 cm (5–6 in) tail[116]

Habitat: Forest, shrubland, and grassland[117]

Diet: Primarily eats rodents, as well as birds and small mammals[116][117]
 LC 


Unknown Population steady[117]

Genus Neovison (Baryshnikov and Abramov, 1997) – two species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
American mink

Brown mustelid in water

N. vison
Schreber, 1777

Canada and United States, and large areas in South America, Europe, and Asia (native range in red (North America), introduced in pink)
Mapa Neovison vison.png
Size: 31–45 cm (12–18 in) long, plus 14–25 cm (6–10 in) tail[118]

Habitat: Inland wetlands, forest, and shrubland[119]

Diet: Primarily eats fish, amphibians, crustaceans, muskrats, and small mammals[119]
 LC 


Unknown Population steady[119]

Sea minkExtinct

Black-and-white drawing of mustelid

N. macrodon
Prentiss, 1903
Northeast United States
Wpdms nasa topo gulf of maine.jpg
Size: Estimated to have been around 91 cm (36 in) long, plus 25 cm (10 in) tail[120]

Habitat: Intertidal marine, neritic marine, and coastal marine[121]

Diet: Primarily ate fish as well as molluscs[121]
 EX 


0 Population steady[121]

Subfamily Taxidiinae

Genus Taxidea (Horsfield, 1839) – one species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
American badger

Gray, black, and white mustelid in grass

T. taxus
Schreber, 1777

United States and southern Canada
American Badger area.png
Size: 42–72 cm (17–28 in) long, plus 10–16 cm (4–6 in) tail[122]

Habitat: Forest, grassland, and shrubland[123]

Diet: Primarily eats fossorial rodents, as well as scorpions, insects, snakes, lizards, and birds[123]
 LC 


Unknown Population declining[123]

Prehistoric mustelids

In addition to extant mustelids, a number of prehistoric species have been discovered and classified as a part of Mustelidae. Morphogenic and molecular phylogenic research has placed them within the extant subfamilies Guloninae, Ictonychinae, Lutrinae, Melinae, Mellivorinae, Mustelinae, and Taxidiinae, as well as the extinct subfamilies Leptarctinae, Mustelavinae, and Oligobuninae. There is no generally accepted classification of extinct mustelid species, and many discovered species have not been placed within any subfamily. The species listed here are based on data from the Paleobiology Database, unless otherwise cited. Where available, the approximate time period the species was extant is given in millions of years before the present (Mya), also based on data from the Paleobiology Database.[124] All listed species are extinct; where a genus or subfamily within Mustelidae comprises only extinct species, it is indicated with a dagger symbol Extinct.

  • Subfamily Guloninae
    • Genus CanimartesExtinct
      • C. cumminsii
    • Genus FerinestrixExtinct (4.9–1.8 Mya)
      • F. vorax (4.9–1.8 Mya)
    • Genus Gulo
      • G. diaphorus
      • G. primigenius (12–5.3 Mya)
      • G. sudorus (11–1.8 Mya)
    • Genus IberictisExtinct (16–11 Mya)
      • I. azanzae (16–11 Mya)
      • I. buloti (16–13 Mya)
    • Genus IschyrictisExtinct (16–12 Mya)
    • Genus Pekania
      • P. diluviana (1.8–0.3 Mya)
      • P. occulta (11–4.9 Mya)
      • P. palaeosinensis
    • Genus PlesioguloExtinct (11–4.9 Mya)
      • P. lindsayi (11–4.9 Mya)
      • P. marshalli (11–4.9 Mya)
    • Genus PlionictisExtinct (16–4.9 Mya)
      • P. oaxacaensis (16–13 Mya)
      • P. ogygia (16–10 Mya)
      • P. oregonensis (11–4.9 Mya)
    • Genus SthenictisExtinct
      • S. bellus (21–15 Mya)
      • S. dolichops (16–13 Mya)
      • S. junturensis (23–5.3 Mya)
      • S. lacota (14–10 Mya)
      • S. robustus
  • Subfamily Ictonychinae
    • Genus CernictisExtinct (11–4.9 Mya)
      • C. hesperus (11–4.9 Mya)
      • C. repenningi (11–4.9 Mya)
    • Genus EnhydrictisExtinct (2.6–0.12 Mya)
      • E. ardea (2.6–0.12 Mya)
    • Genus LutravusExtinct (10.3–4.9 Mya)
      • L. halli (10.3–4.9 Mya)
    • Genus OriensictisExtinct
    • Genus PannonictisExtinct (2.6–0.78 Mya)
      • P. pliocaenica (2.6–0.78 Mya)
    • Genus SminthosinisExtinct (4.9–1.8 Mya)
      • S. bowleri (4.9–1.8 Mya)
    • Genus StipaniciciaExtinct (1.2–0.78 Mya)
    • Genus TrigonictisExtinct (1.8–0.3 Mya)
    • Genus TrochictisExtinct (15–9.7 Mya)
  • Subfamily LeptarctinaeExtinct
    • Genus CraterogaleExtinct
      • C. simus (21–15 Mya)
    • Genus LeptarctusExtinct
      • L. ancipidens (16–13 Mya)
      • L. martini (16–13 Mya)
      • L. mummorum (14–10 Mya)
      • L. neimenguensis
      • L. oregonensis (16–13 Mya)
      • L. primus (16–13 Mya)
      • L. progressus
      • L. supremus (11–4.9 Mya)
      • L. webbi (14–10 Mya)
      • L. woodburnei (11–5.3 Mya)
      • L. wortmani (14–10 Mya)
    • Genus TrocharionExtinct
      • T. albanense (16–11 Mya)
  • Subfamily Lutrinae
    • Genus Aonyx
      • A. antiqua (0.79–0.12 Mya)
    • Genus CyrnaonyxExtinct (0.79–0.12 Mya)
      • C. antiqua (0.79–0.12 Mya)
    • Genus Enhydra
      • E. macrodonta (0.3–0.012 Mya)
      • E. reevei (2.6–1.8 Mya)
    • Genus EnhydriodonExtinct
      • E. aethiopicus
      • E. africanus (3.6–2.5 Mya)
      • E. dikikae (5.4–3.6 Mya)
      • E. ekecaman (5.4–3.6 Mya)
      • E. falconeri (5.4–2.5 Mya)
      • E. latipes
      • E. sivalensis (3.6–2.5 Mya)
      • E. hendeyi[125]
    • Genus Lontra
      • L. weiri (5.4–2.5 Mya)
    • Genus Lutra
      • L. affinis (5.4–2.5 Mya)
      • L. bravardi (2.6–1.8 Mya)
      • L. bressana (2.6–0.012 Mya)
      • L. castiglionis (0.79–0.12 Mya)
      • L. fatimazohrae (3.6–2.5 Mya)
      • L. franconica (29–23 Mya)
      • L. hessica
      • L. licenti
      • L. lybica
      • L. maculicollis (0.13–0.012 Mya)
      • L. palaeoleptonyx
      • L. simplicidens (0.79–0.12 Mya)
      • L. sumatrana
    • Genus LutraeximiaExtinct (2.6–0.012 Mya)
      • L. trinacriae (2.6–0.012 Mya)
      • L. umbra (2.6–0.78 Mya)
    • Genus LutrictisExtinct
      • L. lycopotamicus
    • Genus Lutrogale
      • L. cretensis (0.13–0.012 Mya)
    • Genus MegencephalonExtinct
      • M. primaevus
    • Genus NesolutraExtinct (2.6–0.12 Mya)
      • N. euxena (2.6–0.12 Mya)
    • Genus PaludolutraExtinct (8.7–3.2 Mya)
      • P. campanii (8.7–5.3 Mya)
      • P. lluecai (5.4–3.2 Mya)
      • P. maremmana (8.7–5.3 Mya)
    • Genus SardolutraExtinct (2.6–0.12 Mya)
      • S. ichnusae (2.6–0.12 Mya)
    • Genus SiamogaleExtinct
    • Genus TeruelictisExtinct (9.7–8.7 Mya)
      • T. riparius (9.7–8.7 Mya)
    • Genus TyrrhenolutraExtinct
      • T. helbingi (8.7–5.3 Mya)
  • Subfamily Melinae
    • Genus AlgarolutraExtinct (2.6–0.012 Mya)
      • A. majori (2.6–0.012 Mya)
    • Genus ArctomelesExtinct (11–1.8 Mya)
      • A. dimolodontus (11–1.8 Mya)
      • A. sotnikovae (5.4–3.6 Mya)
    • Genus CyrnolutraExtinct
    • Genus EnhydritheriumExtinct (14–4.9 Mya)
    • Genus Meles
      • M. iberica (2.6–0.78 Mya)
      • M. thorali (2.6–1.8 Mya)
    • Genus LimnonyxExtinct
      • L. pontica (12–5.3 Mya)
      • L. sinerizi
    • Genus MegalenhydrisExtinct (0.13–0.012 Mya)
      • M. barbaricina (0.13–0.012 Mya)
    • Genus MelodonExtinct (16–5.3 Mya)
    • Genus MionictisExtinct (21–7.2 Mya)
      • M. angustidens (14–10 Mya)
      • M. artenensis (17–15 Mya)
      • M. dubia (12–7.2 Mya)
      • M. elegans (21–15 Mya)
      • M. incertus (21–15 Mya)
      • M. letifer (21–15 Mya)
      • M. pristinus (14–10 Mya)
    • Genus ParalutraExtinct
      • P. garganensis (12–5.3 Mya)
      • P. jaegeri (12–9.7 Mya)
      • P. lorteti (17–15 Mya)
      • P. transdanubica
    • Genus PelycictisExtinct
    • Genus PromelesExtinct (8.7–5.3 Mya)
    • Genus SatheriumExtinct
  • Subfamily Mellivorinae
  • Subfamily Mustelinae
    • Genus BaranogaleExtinct
      • B. antiqua (2.6–1.8 Mya)
      • B. balcanica
      • B. helbingi (7.3–2.5 Mya)
    • Genus DinogaleExtinct (21–15 Mya)
      • D. siouxensis (21–15 Mya)
    • Genus LartetictisExtinct (14–2.5 Mya)
      • L. dubia (14–2.5 Mya)
    • Genus LegionarictisExtinct (16–13 Mya)
      • L. fortidens (16–13 Mya)
    • Genus Martes
      • M. campestris (14–10 Mya)
      • M. caurina
      • M. foxi (4.9–1.8 Mya)
      • M. gazini (16–13 Mya)
      • M. intermedius
      • M. khelifensis (16–11 Mya)
      • M. kinseyi (16–13 Mya)
      • M. melampus
      • M. parviloba (16–13 Mya)
      • M. stirtoni (14–10 Mya)
      • M. vetus (2.6–0.78 Mya)
    • Genus Mustela
      • M. buwaldi
      • M. eversmannii (0.78–0.012 Mya)
      • M. furo
      • M. jacksoni (2.6–0.78 Mya)
      • M. meltoni (4.9–1.8 Mya)
      • M. ogygia
      • M. palaeattica (12–7.2 Mya)
      • M. palermina
      • M. praenivalis (2.6–0.12 Mya)
      • M. rexroadensis (4.9–1.8 Mya)
      • M. spelaea
    • Genus PutoriusExtinct
      • P. nambianus
      • P. stromeri (2.6–0.78 Mya)
    • Genus TisisthenesExtinct (1.8–0.3 Mya)
      • T. parvus (1.8–0.3 Mya)
    • Genus Vormela
      • V. beremendensis
  • Subfamily MustelavinaeExtinct
    • Genus MustelavusExtinct (34–24 Mya)
      • M. priscus (34–24 Mya)
  • Subfamily OligobuninaeExtinct
    • Genus BrachypsalisExtinct (24–5.3 Mya)
      • B. hyaenoides (24–5.3 Mya)
      • B. matutinus (21–15 Mya)
      • B. modicus (16–13 Mya)
      • B. obliquidens (16–13 Mya)
      • B. pachycephalus (16–13 Mya)
    • Genus CorumictisExtinct (34–28 Mya)[127]
      • C. wolsani (34–28 Mya)[127]
    • Genus FloridictisExtinct (21–15 Mya)
      • F. kerneri (21–15 Mya)
    • Genus MegalictisExtinct
      • M. ferox (25–20 Mya)
      • M. frazieri (25–20 Mya)
      • M. petersoni
    • Genus OligobunisExtinct (24–15 Mya)
      • O. crassivultus (24–15 Mya)
      • O. floridanus (21–15 Mya)
    • Genus ParabrachypsalisExtinct (21–15 Mya)
      • P. janisae (21–15 Mya)
    • Genus ParoligobunisExtinct
    • Genus PromartesExtinct
      • P. darbyi (27–24 Mya)
      • P. fossor
      • P. gemmarosae (31–20 Mya)
      • P. lepidus (21–15 Mya)
      • P. olcotti (25–20 Mya)
      • P. vantasselensis (25–20 Mya)
    • Genus ZodiolestesExtinct (25–15 Mya)
      • Z. daimonelixensis (25–20 Mya)
      • Z. freundi (21–15 Mya)
  • Subfamily Taxidiinae
    • Genus ChamitataxusExtinct (11–4.9 Mya)
      • C. avitus (11–4.9 Mya)
    • Genus PliotaxideaExtinct
      • P. garberi (11–4.9 Mya)
      • P. nevadensis (11–5.3 Mya)
    • Genus Taxidea
      • T. mexicana (11–4.9 Mya)
  • Unclassified
    • Genus AcheronictisExtinct (31–20 Mya)
      • A. webbi (31–20 Mya)
    • Genus ArikarictisExtinct (25–20 Mya)
      • A. chapini (25–20 Mya)
    • Genus BrevimalictisExtinct (16–13 Mya)
      • B. chikasha (16–13 Mya)
    • Genus CircamustelaExtinct (12–8.7 Mya)
    • Genus ErokomellivoraExtinct (11–2.6 Mya)
    • Genus FranconictisExtinct
      • F. huilidens
      • F. vireti (23–20 Mya)
    • Genus KenyalutraExtinct
    • Genus KinometaxiaExtinct
    • Genus LaphyctisExtinct
    • Genus LuogaleExtinct
    • Genus MarcetiaExtinct (12–8.7 Mya)
    • Genus MatanomictisExtinct (29–23 Mya)
      • M. maniyarensis (29–23 Mya)
    • Genus MelidellavusExtinct (16–11 Mya)
    • Genus MellalictisExtinct (16–11 Mya)
      • M. mellalensis (16–11 Mya)
    • Genus MesomephitisExtinct
    • Genus MiomustelaExtinct (16–13 Mya)
      • M. madisonae (16–13 Mya)
    • Genus MustelictisExtinct
      • M. olivieri (34–28 Mya)
      • M. robustus
    • Genus NamibictisExtinct (24–11 Mya)
      • N. senuti (24–11 Mya)
    • Genus NegodiaetictisExtinct (16–13 Mya)
      • N. rugatrulleum (16–13 Mya)
    • Genus PalaeomelesExtinct
    • Genus ParagaleExtinct
    • Genus ParataxideaExtinct (16–2.5 Mya)
    • Genus PeruniumExtinct
    • Genus PlesictisExtinct (29–20 Mya)
    • Genus PlesiogaleExtinct (24–5.3 Mya)
      • P. postfelina (24–5.3 Mya)
    • Genus PlesiomelesExtinct
    • Genus PoecilictisExtinct (3.6–2.5 Mya)
    • Genus PrepoecilogaleExtinct
    • Genus PresictisExtinct
    • Genus PromellivoraExtinct
    • Genus ProputoriusExtinct (16–7.2 Mya)
    • Genus ProtarctosExtinct (5.4–2.5 Mya)
    • Genus PyctisExtinct (34–28 Mya)
      • P. inamatus (34–28 Mya)
    • Genus SabadellictisExtinct
    • Genus SemantorExtinct (5.4–2.5 Mya)
      • S. macrurus (5.4–2.5 Mya)
    • Genus SinictisExtinct
    • Genus SivalictisExtinct
    • Genus SivaonyxExtinct
      • S. bathygnatha
      • S. gandakasensis (12–7.2 Mya)
      • S. hendeyi (24–2.5 Mya)
      • S. hessicus (12–5.3 Mya)
      • S. kamuhangirei (5.4–3.6 Mya)
      • S. lehmani (8.7–5.3 Mya)
      • S. senutae (12–5.3 Mya)
      • S. soriae (7.3–5.3 Mya)
    • Genus TaxodonExtinct (16–9.7 Mya)
    • Genus TorolutraExtinct (5.4–3.6 Mya)
    • Genus TrochotheriumExtinct (13–11 Mya)
    • Genus VishnuonyxExtinct (16–11 Mya)
      • V. chinjiensis (16–11 Mya)
    • Genus XenictisExtinct (2.6–0.78 Mya)
    • Genus ZorillaExtinct

References

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  2. ^ Koepfli, K. P.; Kanchanasaka, B.; Sasaki, H.; Jacques, H.; Louie, K. D. Y.; Hoai, T.; Dang, N. X.; Geffen, E.; Gutleb, A.; Han, S.; Heggberget, T. M.; LaFontaine, L.; Lee, H.; Melisch, R.; Ruiz-Olmo, J.; Santos-Reis, M.; Sidorovich, V. E.; Stubbe, M.; Wayne, R. K. (2008). "Establishing the foundation for an applied molecular taxonomy of otters in Southeast Asia" (PDF). Conservation Genetics. 9 (6): 1589–1604. doi:10.1007/s10592-007-9498-5. S2CID 24619297.
  3. ^ Jacques, Hélène; et al. (2009). "The Congo clawless otter (Aonyx congicus) (Mustelidae: Lutrinae): a review of its systematics, distribution and conservation status". African Zoology. 44 (2): 159–170. doi:10.3377/004.044.0204. S2CID 86008709.
  4. ^ Schreffler, Christina (2003). "Eira barbara". Animal Diversity Web. University of Michigan. Retrieved November 13, 2019.
  5. ^ a b c Cuarón, A. D.; Reid, F.; Helgen, K.; González-Maya, J. F. (2016). "Eira barbara". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T41644A45212151. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-1.RLTS.T41644A45212151.en.
  6. ^ Streubel, Donald (2000). "Wolverine". Digital Atlas of Idaho. Idaho State University. Archived from the original on August 22, 2016. Retrieved October 2, 2019.
  7. ^ a b c Abramov, A. V. (2016). "Gulo gulo". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T9561A45198537. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-1.RLTS.T9561A45198537.en.
  8. ^ Streubel, Donald (2000). "American Marten". Digital Atlas of Idaho. Idaho State University. Archived from the original on August 22, 2016. Retrieved October 2, 2019.
  9. ^ a b c Helgen, K.; Reid, F. (2016). "Martes americana". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T41648A45212861. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-1.RLTS.T41648A45212861.en.
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