List of political parties in Egypt

Egypt has had differing multi-party systems over the last century and a half, with a hiatus between 1953 and 1977, after which the current party law was enacted. Nevertheless, in practice the National Democratic Party was the long-time ruling party and dominated the Egyptian political arena, first under president Anwar Sadat, and then president Hosni Mubarak from its foundation in 1978, up until its dissolution in the wake of the Egyptian Revolution of 2011, and the ousting of Mubarak. Under Mubarak, opposition parties were allowed, but were widely considered to have no real chance of gaining power. On 28 March 2011, the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces amended Political Party Law 40/1977, easing restrictions on the legal establishment of new political parties in Egypt, where many new parties covering the political spectrum were formed. After the 2013 popular coup/revolution, and a further seismic political shift, another wave of new parties were formed, a large number of which were aligned with current non-partisan president, Abdel Fattah al-Sisi. In December 2020, final results of the parliamentary election confirmed a clear majority of the pro-Sisi Mostaqbal Watan (Nation’s Future) Party.

Restricted partisan pluralism (1977 – 25 January 2011)

Under the new Infitah (liberal realignment) of president Anwar Sadat, and in the aftermath of the 1973 October War and the peace process with Israel, Sadat’s decree in March 1976 founded a three-party platform within the framework of the Arab Socialist Union, representing the right, the center and the left, before spinning them off on 22 November of the same year into political parties. These three parties, were the first nucleus of the restricted partisan pluralism allowed by the Political Parties Law 40/1977:

Parties established by judicial rulings (11):

Post-2011 revolution (2011–2013)

In the wake of the January 2011 uprising in Egypt, the deposition of Hosni Mubarak and dissolution of his National Democratic Party that ruled for over three decades, the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces issued a decree-law 12/2011 amending certain provisions of the Political Parties Law 40/1977, after which many parties were formed.

The legislation was however criticized as discriminatory. Under the law new parties are now required to have at least 5,000 members from at least ten of Egypt's provinces. Originally, new parties were only required to have 1,000 members. This was cited as a barrier for new parties before parliamentary elections which took place at the end of 2011 and beginning of 2012. Also, new party leaders are required to raise at least LE1 million to publish the names of the founding members in two widely circulated dailies, seen as favoring wealthier interests. No parties are able to form on the basis of religion or class, ruling out the formation of Islamic and labor parties. However, in practice, religious parties have been allowed. After first being denied a license by the political parties commission, the Supreme Administrative Court allowed Gamaa Islamiya to form the Building and Development Party. The political parties commission allowed the Al Nour Party to be approved in May 2011, in part because it does not refer to the hudud in their electoral program. An article on the Daily News Egypt website states that religious parties have gone around the ban by not explicitly advocating a state based on Islam in their political programs.

Post-2013 popular coup/revolution (2013–present)

On July 3, 2013, president Mohamed Morsi, the leader of the Freedom and Justice Party (FJP) was removed from power in the aftermath of the June 30 popular coup/revolution, which later resulted in a new (2014) constitution banning parties based on religion, effectively dissolving the dominant FJP.

In June 2014, Abdel Fattah el-Sisi became Egypt's first president not affiliated with a political party. However, a number of pro-Sisi parties have since formed, and by 2018, 104 political parties were officially registered and approved by the Committee of Parties.

List of currently active parties

Egyptian politics are subject to unique circumstances and often defy simple classification in terms of the political spectrum. Currently, over 100 registered political parties in Egypt exist. Groups are sometimes associated with the political left or right, especially in international circles, according to their stance on issues. While the current Egyptian constitution prohibits the formation of political parties based on religion, there are parties that seek to establish Islamic sharia laws, or uphold the article in the constitution that states that sharia law is the main source of legislation, and others that support the formation of a secular state. The following is a categorization of political parties based on their social, economical, and political orientation, as well as their legal status:

Parties represented in the House of Representatives or the Senate

Name Founded Leader Political position Ideology Senate House Position on 2013 Egyptian coup d'état and 2011 Egyptian revolution
Nation's Future Party
حزب مستقبل وطن
Hizb Mustaqbal Watan
2014 Abdel-Wahab Abdel-Razeq Big tent Egyptian nationalism
Economic liberalism
Militarism
149 / 300
316 / 596
Pro-Coup
Republican People's Party
حزب الشعب الجمهورى
Hezb al-Shaeb al-Gomhuri
2012 Hazem Omar Centre-left Egyptian nationalism
Secularism
Militarism
Liberalism
17 / 300
50 / 596
Pro-Coup
New Wafd Party
حزب الوفد المصري
Ḥizb al-Wafd al-Jadīd
1978 Bahaa El-Din Abu Shoka Centre-right Egyptian nationalism
Secularism
Conservatism
Liberal conservatism
Economic liberalism
National liberalism
Conservative liberalism
10 / 300
26 / 596
Anti-Coup
Homeland Defenders Party
حزب حماة الوطن
Ḥizb Hamaat al-Watan
Galal Haridy Centre to centre-right Centrism
Militarism
11 / 300
23 / 596
Pro-Coup
Modern Egypt Party
حزب مصر الحديثة
Ḥizb Masr al-Haditha
2011 Nabil Deibis Centre to centre-right Liberalism
4 / 300
11 / 596
Pro-Coup
Reform and Development Party
حزب الأصلاح و التنمية
Ḥizb al-Islah wa al-Tanmiyah
2009 Mohamed Anwar Esmat Sadat Centre Market liberalism
3 / 300
9 / 596
Anti-Coup
Egyptian Social Democratic Party
الحزب المصرى الديمقراطى الاجتماعى
al-Ḥizb al-Maṣrī al-Dimuqrāṭī al-Ijtmāʿī
2011 Mervat Tallawy Centre-left Secularism
Social democracy
Social liberalism
Progressivism
3 / 300
7 / 596
Anti-Coup
Egyptian Freedom Party [ar]
حزب الحرية المصري
Hizb al-Huriyat al-Misriu
2011 Ahmed Muhanna Big tent Liberalism
1 / 300
7 / 596
Anti-Coup
Egyptian Conference Party
حزب المؤتمر المصري
Ḥizb al-Muʾtamar al-Maṣrī
2012 Omar El-Mokhtar Semeida Centre to centre-left Big tent
Social liberalism
3 / 300
7 / 596
Anti-Coup
Al-Nour Party
حزب النور
Ḥizb an-Nūr
2011 Younes Makhioun Far-right Salafi Islamism
Wahhabism
Madkhalism
2 / 300
7 / 596
Pro-Coup
National Progressive Unionist Party
حزب التجمع الوطني التقدمي الوحدوي
Ḥizb al-Tagammu' al-Watani al-Taqadomi al-Wahdawi
1977 Sayed Abdel Aal Left-wing Nasserism
Left-wing nationalism
Democratic socialism
Left-wing populism
4 / 300
6 / 596
Anti-Coup
Justice Party
حزب العدل
Ḥizb el-Adl
2011 Hamdi Stouhi Centre Big tent
Secularism
1 / 300
2 / 596
Erdat Gil Party [ar]
حزب إرادة جيل
Ḥizb 'Iiradat Jil
2019 Tayseer Matar
1 / 300
1 / 596
Egyptian Patriotic Movement
الحركة الوطنية المصرية
Ḥizb al-Ḥarakat al-Waṭaniyya al-Miṣriyya
2012 Sayed Abdel Aal Secularism
2 / 300
0 / 596
Sadat Democratic Party
حزب السادات الديمقراطي
Hizb al-Saadat al-Diymuqratii
2014 Effat Sadat Nationalism
1 / 300
0 / 596

Non-represented parties

Party name English Party name Arabic Ideology Political position Legal status Founded Role in 2011 Egyptian Revolution Notes
Revolutionary Guards Party حزب حراس الثورة
Human Rights and Citizenship Party حزب حقوق الانسان والمواطنة Centrism 27 September 2011
New Independent Party الحزب المستقل الجديد Created by former members of the National Democratic Party
Popular Current Party at-tāyar ash-shāʿībi al-masri
التيار الشعبي المصري
21 September 2014
Consciousness Party حزب الوعي 2011
Knights of Egypt Party فرسان حزب مصر
Forsan Masr
Liberalism Founded by former members of the Egyptian military
National Bloc لكتلة الوطنية Founded by former members of the Constitution Party
Arabism Egypt Party Founded by Sami Anan
Arabic Popular Movement Founded by members of the Tamarod movement
Egyptian Hope Party Pragmatism Founded by former members of the Constitution Party
Youth for Egypt Party Islamism Founded by former members of the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood
My Homeland Egypt Party Misr Baladi Founded by former National Democratic Party members
Bread and Freedom Party Eish we Horria Socialism Left 2013 Founded by former members of the Socialist Popular Alliance Party
Democratic Jihad Party Islamism Centrism Founded by former members of the Egyptian Islamic Jihad group
Egyptian Will Party Founded by retired members of the Egyptian military
Constitution Party El-Dostour Big tent, Liberalism Centre-left 2012 2012 Supported Founded by Mohamed ElBaradei
Al Ansar Party Islamism, Salafism
Flag Party Islamism, Salafism Founded by Hazem Salah Abu Ismail
We Are the People Party 2014 Founded by former members of the parliament
Nubian Nile Party
Homeland Party Al-Watan Islamism, Salafism 2013 2013 Founded by Emad Abdel Ghaffour
Pioneer Party Al Riyada Unregistered 2011 Founded by former members of the Muslim Brotherhood
Victory Party El Nasr Sufism Founded by a Sufi order
Arab Party for Justice and Equality El Hezb el Araby lel Adl wel Mosawa Arab nationalism 2011 Arab Bedouin tribes in Sinai and Upper Egypt
Social Peace Party Al Salam el Egtemaii Social liberalism Third Way 2011
You Are Egyptian Party Enta Masry 2011
Revolution Egypt Party Masr El Thawra Liberal democracy 2011
Free Egypt Party Masr el Horra 2011
Quiver Party El Kenana 2009
Voice of Freedom Party Sot el Horreya Islamism, Sufism Rifa’i Sufi order
Workers and Peasants Party el Ommal wel Fallahin Socialism Left Founded by Kamal Khalil
Life of the Egyptians Party Hayat el Masreyyn Secularism Founded by former MP Mohamed Abu Hamed
Egyptian Alliance Party 2011
Equality and Development Party Supported
Egyptian Reform Party Islamism, Salafism Right Unregistered 2011 Young Salafis
National Party of Egypt Masr el Qawmi 2011
Egyptian Citizen Party El Mowaten el Masri Big tent 2011
Egypt Renaissance Party Nahdet Masr
Egypt Development Party Masr el Tanmeya
Egypt Revival Party Masr el Nahda Founded by Hossam Badrawi
Union Party El Etehad Centrism 2011 Founded by Hossam Badrawi
Beginning Party El Bedaya 2011
Reform and Renaissance Party El Eslah wel Nahda Islamism Unregistered 2011
Egyptian Change and Development Party Islamism Unregistered
Islamic Party Islamism Far-right
Virtue Party El Fadila Islamism, Salafism Right 2011
Arab Unification Party El Tawhid el Arabi Pan-Arabism, Islamism Right 2011
Renaissance Party El Nahda Islamism, Salafism Right
Authenticity Party El-Asala Islamism, Salafism Far-right 2011
People Party El Shaab Islamism Right Unregistered 2012 Salafi Front
Egyptian Nation Party El Omma el Masreya Islamism, Salafism Right Unregistered 2012
Egypt the Future Party Masr el Mostaqbal Moderate Islamism Centrism 2012 Founded by Amr Khaled
New Labour Party El Amal el gadid Islamism, Salafist
Strong Egypt Party Masr Al-Qaweya Moderate Islamism Centrist Registered 2012 Supported Founded by Abdel Moneim Aboul Fotouh
Life Party El Haya Liberalism, Secularism, Coptic interests Centrism 2011 2011 Supported Founded by Coptic Activist Micheal Meunier
Egyptian Current Party El Tayyar el Masri Moderate Islamism Centrism Registered 2011 Supported Youths of Muslim Brotherhood
Unity Democratic Egyptian Party El Wehda el Dimoqrati el Masri Moderate, Secularism Centrism Unregistered 2012
Egyptian Arab Union Party El Etehad el Masri el Arabi Pan-Arabism, Secularism Centrism Registered 2011
Justice Party El Adl Liberalism, Secularism Centrism Registered 2011 Supported April 6 Movement, National Association for Change, Kefaya
Arab Democratic Nasserist Party El Arabi el Dimoqrati el Nasseri Nasserism, Secularism Left Registered 1992
Building and Development Party El Benaa wel Tanmeya Islamism Right Registered 2011
Al-Wasat Party El Wasat Moderate Islamism Centrism 2011 1996 Supported Branching from the Muslim Brotherhood
Conservative Party El Mohafezin Conservatism, Secularism Centre-right Registered 2006
Democratic Front Party El Gabha el Dimoqrateya Liberalism, Secularism Centrism Registered 2007
Democratic Generation Party El Geel el Dimoqrati Secularism, Liberal democracy Registered 2002 Opposed
Democratic Peace Party El Salam el Dimoqrati Secularism Registered 2005
Democratic Union Party El Etehad el Dimoqrati Secularism Registered 1990
Dignity Party El Karama Nasserism, Secularism Left Supported
Egypt 2000 Party Masr 2000 Anti-globalization, Secularism 2001 Opposed
Egyptian Communist Party El Shoiou'i el Masri Communism Far left 1975 Supported
Egypt Youth Party Shabab Misr Secularism 2005
Egyptian Arab Socialist Party Masr el Arabi el Eshteraki Pan-Arabism Left 1977 Opposed
Free Egyptians Party El Masreyyn el Ahrar Liberalism, Liberal Democracy, Capitalism, Free Market Right 2011 Support
Free Republican Party El Gomhouri el Hor 2006 Opposed
Free Social Constitutional Party El Dostouri el Egtemai' el Hor Secularism, Liberal Democracy 2004
Freedom Egypt Party Masr el Horreya Social democracy, Secularism, Centre-left 2011 Supported
Green Party of Egypt El Khodr Green politics, Secularism Left 1990 Opposed
Liberal Egyptian Party El Masri El Liberali Secularism, Liberalism, Pharaonism, Egyptian nationalism, Liberal Democracy Centre Awaiting license
Liberal Socialists Party El Ahrar el Eshterakeyyn Liberalism Centre-right 1977 Opposed
National Conciliation Party El Wifak el Watani Secularism 2000
Liberation Party Hizb ut-Tahrir Islamism Far-right Operational 1953, 1974 Founded by Taqiuddin al-Nabhani
People's Democratic Party El Shaab el Dimoqrati Secularism, Liberal Democracy Currently frozen 1992
Popular Socialist Alliance Party El tahalof el Shaabi el Eshteraki Socialism, Secularism Far Left 2011
Social Justice Party El Adala el Egtemaei'a Islamic socialism Left Registered 1993 Opposed
Egyptian Islamic Labour Party El Amal el Islami el masri Islamism Suspended 1978
Socialist Party of Egypt El Eshteraki el Masri Democratic Socialism, Secularism Left 2011 Supported
Solidarity Party El takafol 1995
Tomorrow Party El Ghad Liberalism, Secularism Centrism 2004 Opposed
The Revolution's Tomorrow Ghad el Thawra Liberalism, Secularism Centrism 2011 Supported
Workers Democratic Party El Ommal el Dimoqrati Socialism, Secularism Left Awaiting license 2011
Young Egypt Party Masr el Fatah Islamism, Pan-Arabism 1990
Active Egyptian political alliances
Alliance name (English) Alliance name (Arabic) Political orientation Religious orientation Legal status Founded Member parties
Civil Democratic Movement Reform and Development Misruna Party, Socialist Popular Alliance Party, Constitution Party, Justice Party, Egyptian Social Democratic Party, Dignity Party, Freedom Egypt Party, Bread and Freedom Party
Egypt Arab Democratic Nasserist Party, Arab Party for Justice and Equality, Democratic Generation Party, Democratic Peace Party, Egyptian Arab Socialist Party, Egyptian Patriotic Movement, My Homeland Egypt Party, Social Construction Party, Tomorrow Party, Victory Party, Voice of Egypt Party
National Front Alliance تحالف الجبهة الوطنية Egyptian Democratic, Nasserist Party, Future of Egypt Party, Dignity Party, Tagammu Party
For the Love of Egypt Fee Hob Misr Free Egyptians Party, New Wafd Party, Nation's Future Party, Conference Party, Conservative Party, Tamarod, Tomorrow Party, Sadat Democratic Party, Modern Egypt Party, Reform and Renaissance Party
Call of Egypt Human Rights and Citizenship Party, We Are the People Party, New Independent Party, Arab Party for Justice and Equality, Homeland Defenders Party
Independent Current Coalition Democratic Peace Party, Egyptian Arab Socialist Party
Egyptian Front Modern Egypt Party, Republican People's Party, National Party of Egypt, Egyptian Liberation Party, Tomorrow Party, Egyptian Patriotic Movement, My Homeland Egypt Party, Democratic Generation Party, Tomorrow Party
Anti-Coup Alliance Islamist 27 June 2013 Building and Development Party, Freedom and Justice Party, New Labour Party, Virtue Party, Egyptian Reform Party, Authenticity Party, People Party

Inactive Egyptian political alliances

Alliance name (English) Alliance name (Arabic) Political orientation Religious orientation Legal status Founded Member parties
Long Live Egypt New Dawn Party, Egyptian Revolution Party
Social Justice Coalition Leftist National Association for Change, Nasserist People's Congress Party, National Conciliation Party, Revolution Egypt Party, Liberal Socialist Party, People Party, Democratic Union Party, Free Social Constitutional Party, Egypt's Future Party, Socialist Labour Party, Revolutionary Rescue Party, Egyptian National Council, Greenpeace Movement, Coalition of Egyptians Abroad, National Youth Council, Senior Nasserist Conference
Civil Democratic Current Dignity Party, Constitution Party, Socialist Popular Alliance Party, Freedom Egypt Party, Popular Current Party, Bread and Freedom Party, Socialist Party of Egypt, Egyptian Social Democratic Party
Reawakening of Egypt National Bloc, Socialist Party of Egypt, Egyptian Communist Party, Civil Democratic Current, Egyptian Democratic, Nasserist Party, Future of Egypt Party Tagammu Party Socialist Popular Alliance Party, Justice Party, Reform and Renaissance Party
Leftist Alliance Leftism Tagammu, Socialist Popular Alliance Party, Egyptian Communist Party, Socialist Party of Egypt
Egypt's Unity وحدة مصر
Islamic Alliance to Support Egypt إسلاميون لدعم مصر Free Front of the Islamic Group, Reform of the Islamic Group, Revolt of the Islamic Group, Brotherhood Dissidents, Brotherhood Without Violence
National Alliance My Homeland Egypt Party, Egyptian Patriotic Movement, Democratic Generation Party, Egyptian Arab Socialist Party, Revolutionary Forces Bloc, Free Egyptians Party
Egyptian Wafd Alliance New Wafd Party, Reform and Development Misruna Party, Conservative Party, Consciousness Party, Arab Alliance Party, Arab Party for Justice and Equality, Reform and Renaissance Party,
Nation Alliance Flag Party, Egyptian Reform Party, Authenticity Party, People Party, Islamic Party, Virtue Party, New Labour Party
Islamist coalition Islamist Egyptian Nation Party
Centrist Coalition Unregistered Civilization Party, Wasat Party
Free Nation Coalition Islamist Unregistered Homeland Party, Building and Development Party
Independent Party Current Unregistered Democratic Peace Party
National Salvation Front Unregistered Egyptian Social Democratic Party, New Wafd Party, Farmers General Syndicate
Constitution Party, Egyptian Popular Current, Socialist Popular Alliance Party
National Association for Change
National Progressive Unionist Party,
Conference Party, Reform and Development Misruna Party, Dignity Party
Socialist Party of Egypt Egypt's Future Party, Democratic Generation Party, Social Peace Party, Freedom Party, Freedom Egypt Party, Egyptian Communist Party Free Egyptians Party, Arab Democratic Nasserist Party
Coalition for the Defense of Sharia Islamist Islamic Unregistered Freedom and Justice Party, Building and Development Party, Al Nour Party
Safety and Development Party, Authenticity Party, People Party,Egyptian Reform Party
Civil Democratic Movement Secular Unregistered Arab Democratic Nasserist Party, Democratic Front Party, Egyptian Communist Party, Free Egyptians Party, Freedom Egypt Party, Egyptian Green Party, Ghad El-Thawra Party, Life of the Egyptians Party,Liberal Constitutional Party,Liberals Party, New Wafd Party, Socialist Popular Alliance Party, Young Egypt Party
Egyptian Nation Alliance Social Liberalism, Liberal democracy,

Big tent

Liberal Unregistered 27 September 2012 Conference Party, New Wafd Party, Free Egyptians Party Socialist Party of Egypt, Egyptian Communist Party, Socialist Popular Alliance Party, Socialist Revolutionary Movement (January), Tagammu Party, Workers Democratic Party, Workers and Peasants Party, Egyptian Popular CurrentReform and Development PartyEgyptian Social Democratic PartyEgyptian Renaissance Party, Victory Party, Egyptian Liberation Party, Dignity Party
Social Justice Coalition Secular Unregistered Egyptian Social Democratic Party, Socialist Party of Egypt, Constitution Party,Popular Coalition
The Egyptian Bloc الكتلة المصرية Social Liberalism, Liberal democracy Liberal Registered 16 August 2011 Free Egyptians Party, Egyptian Social Democratic Party, Tagammu
Revolutionary Democratic Coalition التحالف الديمقراطي الثوري Leftism Unregistered 19 September 2012 Socialist Party of Egypt, Tagammu Party, Workers and Peasants Party, Egyptian Communist Party, Egyptian Coalition to Fight Corruption, Socialist Revolutionary Movement (January), Socialist Youth Union, Mina Daniel Movement
Coalition of the People's Representatives Unregistered
Egyptian Popular Current التيار الشعبي المصري Big tent Unregistered 21 September 2012
Moderate Current Coalition Centrism Moderate Islamism Non-registered Wasat Party, Egyptian Current, Strong Egypt, Civilization Party, Justice Party
Democratic Alliance for Egypt التحالف الديمقراطي من أجل مصر Nationalist, Islamist Mainly Islamic Registered June 2011 Democratic Generation Party, Egyptian Arab Socialist Party, Ghad El-Thawra Party, Dignity Party, Labour Party, Ahrar Party, Egyptian Reform Party, Reform and Renaissance Party, Freedom and Justice Party,Freedom and Development Party
The Revolution Continues Alliance تحالف الثورة مستمرة Center-left Mainly Secular Registered 23 October 2011 Freedom Egypt Party, Egyptian Alliance Party, Equality and Development Party
Islamist Bloc الكتلة الإسلامية Far-right Islamist (hardline Salafi) Al Nour Party, Building and Development Party, Authenticity Party

See also


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