Detailed Pedia

List of viverrids

Four viverrid species (top left to bottom right): Asian palm civet (Paradoxurus hermaphroditus), common genet (Genetta genetta), masked palm civet (Paguma larvata), and binturong (Arctictis binturong)

Viverridae is a family of mammals in the order Carnivora, composed mainly of the civets and genets. A member of this family is called a viverrid. They are widespread primarily throughout Africa, India, and southeast Asia, and are found primarily in forests, shrublands, and grasslands, though some species can be found in savannas or wetlands. Most viverrids are 40–65 cm (16–26 in) long, plus a 35–60 cm (14–24 in) tail, though the West African oyan can be as small as 30 cm (12 in) plus a 35 cm (14 in) tail, and some binturongs can be up to 96 cm (38 in) plus a 89 cm (35 in) tail. Most species do not have population estimates, though three viverrids are classified as endangered, and one, the Malabar large-spotted civet, is classified as critically endangered with a population size of around 200. No viverrid species have been domesticated.

The 33 species of Viverridae are split into 14 genera within 4 subfamilies: the 3 civet subfamilies Viverrinae, Hemigalinae, and Paradoxurinae, and the genet subfamily Genettinae. A fifth subfamily, Prionodontinae, was previously included in Viverridae, while the species in Genettinae were considered part of Viverrinae, but more recent genetic evidence resulted in the consensus to separate Prionodontinae into its own family and split out Genettinae into its own subfamily. Extinct species have also been placed into Viverrinae, as well as the extinct subfamily Lophocyoninae, though most extinct species have not been categorized into a subfamily. Nearly twenty extinct Viverridae species have been discovered, though due to ongoing research and discoveries the exact number and categorization is not fixed.

Conventions

IUCN Red List categories
Conservation status
 EX Extinct (0 species)
 EW Extinct in the wild (0 species)
 CR Critically endangered (1 species)
 EN Endangered (3 species)
 VU Vulnerable (6 species)
 NT Near threatened (3 species)
 LC Least concern (18 species)
Other categories
 DD Data deficient (2 species)
 NE Not evaluated (0 species)

Conservation status codes listed follow the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species. Range maps are provided wherever possible; if a range map is not available, a description of the viverrid's range is provided. Ranges are based on the IUCN red list for that species unless otherwise noted.

Classification

The family Viverridae consists of 33 extant species belonging to 14 genera in 4 subfamilies and divided into dozens of extant subspecies. This does not include hybrid species or extinct prehistoric species.

Viverridae  
 Paradoxurinae  

Paradoxurus  

Macrogalidia  

Paguma  

Arctictis  

Arctogalidia  

Hemigalinae  

Cynogale  

Chrotogale  

Diplogale  

Hemigalus  

Viverrinae  

Viverra  

Civettictis  

Viverricula  

Genettinae  

Poiana  

Genetta  

Viverrids

The following classification is based on the taxonomy described by Mammal Species of the World (2005), with augmentation by generally accepted proposals made since using molecular phylogenetic analysis. This includes the promotion of the Prionodontinae subfamily into its own family, and the moving of the Poiana and Genetta genera out of the Viverrinae subfamily into their own Genettinae subfamily. There are several additional proposals which are disputed, such as splitting the golden palm civet into three species or adding three additional species to Genetta, which are not included here.[1][2]

Subfamily Genettinae

Genus Genetta (Cuvier, 1816) – fourteen species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
Abyssinian genet

Drawing of brown and black viverrid

G. abyssinica
Rüppell, 1836
Northeast Africa
Abyssinian Genet area.png
Size: 40–43 cm (16–17 in) long, plus 38–41 cm (15–16 in) tail[3]

Habitat: Forest, shrubland, and grassland[4]

Diet: Primarily eats rodents, birds, and seeds, as well as insects and fruit[4][5]
 DD 


Unknown Unknown[4]

Angolan genet

Brown and black viverrid climbing a tree

G. angolensis
Bocage, 1882
Scattered south-central Africa
Angolan Genet area.png
Size: 44–48 cm (17–19 in) long, plus 38–43 cm (15–17 in) tail[3]

Habitat: Savanna[6]

Diet: Believed to primarily eat insects, as well as fruit[6][5]
 LC 


Unknown Unknown[6]

Aquatic genet

Drawing of two brown viverrids

G. piscivora
Allen, 1919
Central Africa
Aquatic Genet area.png
Size: 44–50 cm (17–20 in) long, plus 34–42 cm (13–17 in) tail[5]

Habitat: Forest and inland wetlands[7]

Diet: Primarily eats fish[7]
 NT 


10,000 Population declining[7]

Bourlon's genet G. bourloni
Gaubert, 2003
West Africa
Bourlon's Genet area.png
Size: 49–50 cm (19–20 in) long, plus 40–42 cm (16–17 in) tail[5]

Habitat: Forest[8]

Diet: Unknown[8][5]
 VU 


9,800 Population declining[8]

Cape genet

Brown and black viverrid

G. tigrina
Schreber, 1776

South Africa Size: 42–58 cm (17–23 in) long, plus 38–46 cm (15–18 in) tail[5]

Habitat: Forest, shrubland, and grassland[9]

Diet: Omnivorous; primarily eats insects and small mammals[9][5]
 LC 


Unknown Population steady[9]

Common genet

Brown and black viverrid

G. genetta
Linnaeus, 1758

Bands of north, central, and south Africa and parts of Arabian peninsula (green), introduced in southwest Europe (red), formerly introduced in Nile river area (black)
Common Genet area.png
Size: 46–52 cm (18–20 in) long, plus 42–52 cm (17–20 in) tail[3]

Habitat: Forest, savanna, shrubland, and rocky areas[10]

Diet: Primarily eats small mammals, as well as birds, other small vertebrates, insects, and fruit[10]
 LC 


Unknown Population steady[10]

Crested servaline genet

Drawing of brown and black viverrid

G. cristata
Hayman, 1940
Northwest Africa
Crested Servaline Genet area.png
Size: 49–63 cm (19–25 in) long, plus 43 cm (17 in) tail[3]

Habitat: Forest[11]

Diet: Primarily eats insects, as well as small mammals, reptiles, and vegetables[11][5]
 VU 


7,000 Population declining[11]

Giant forest genet

Drawing of brown and black viverrid

G. victoriae
Thomas, 1902
Central Africa
Giant Forest Genet area.png
Size: 55–60 cm (22–24 in) long, plus 41–49 cm (16–19 in) tail[5]

Habitat: Forest[12]

Diet: Primarily eats fruit, as well as rodents, birds, and insects[12][5]
 LC 


Unknown Unknown[12]

Haussa genet

Brown and black viverrid

G. thierryi
Matschie, 1902
West Africa
Haussa Genet area.png
Size: 44–45 cm (17–18 in) long, plus 40–43 cm (16–17 in) tail[3]

Habitat: Forest, savanna, and shrubland[13]

Diet: Unknown[13][5]
 LC 


Unknown Unknown[13]

Johnston's genet G. johnstoni
Pocock, 1908
Northwest Africa
Johnston's Genet area.png
Size: 47–52 cm (19–20 in) long, plus 46–50 cm (18–20 in) tail[5]

Habitat: Forest, savanna, and shrubland[14]

Diet: Believed to primarily eat insects[14][5]
 NT 


Unknown Population declining[14]

King genet G. poensis
Waterhouse, 1838
Scattered parts of west Africa
King Genet area.png
Size: 42–68 cm (17–27 in) long, plus 35–47 cm (14–19 in) tail[5]

Habitat: Forest[15]

Diet: Unknown; believed to eat mammals and fruit[15]
 DD 


Unknown Unknown[15]

Pardine genet

Gray and black viverrid

G. pardina
Geoffroy, 1832
Northwest Africa
Pardine Genet area.png
Size: 41–56 cm (16–22 in) long, plus 39–45 cm (15–18 in) tail[5]

Habitat: Forest, savanna, and shrubland[16]

Diet: Primarily eats rodents, as well as insects, fruit, birds, and other small mammals[16][5]
 LC 


Unknown Unknown[16]

Rusty-spotted genet

Brown spotted viverrid

G. maculata
Gray, 1830
Central and south Africa
Rusty-spotted Genet area.png
Size: 41–53 cm (16–21 in) long, plus 39–54 cm (15–21 in) tail[3]

Habitat: Forest, savanna, and shrubland[17]

Diet: Primarily eats invertebrates, fish, amphibians, reptiles, small birds, eggs, and small mammals, as well as fruit, seeds, and berries[17][5]
 LC 


Unknown Unknown[17]

Servaline genet

Brown and black viverrid

G. servalina
Pucheran, 1855

Central africa
Servaline Genet area.png
Size: 44–51 cm (17–20 in) long, plus 36–49 cm (14–19 in) tail[5]

Habitat: Forest and shrubland[18]

Diet: Primarily eats small mammals and insects, as well as snakes, birds, and fruit[18][5]
 LC 


Unknown Unknown[18]

Genus Poiana (Gray, 1865) – two species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
Central African oyan

Stuffed brown and black viverrid

P. richardsonii
Thomson, 1842

Central Africa
African Linsang area.png
Size: 33–38 cm (13–15 in) long, plus 35–40 cm (14–16 in) tail[19]

Habitat: Forest[20]

Diet: Believed to eat small vertebrates and invertebrates[20][3]
 LC 


Unknown Unknown[20]

West African oyan P. leightoni
Pocock, 1908
West Africa
Leighton's Linsang area.png
Size: 30–38 cm (12–15 in) long, plus 35–40 cm (14–16 in) tail[3]

Habitat: Forest[21]

Diet: Believed to eat small vertebrates and invertebrates[21][3]
 VU 


6,700-10,000 Population declining[21]

Subfamily Hemigalinae

Genus Chrotogale (Thomas, 1912) – one species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
Owston's palm civet

Gray and black viverrid

C. owstoni
Thomas, 1912
Southeast Asia around Vietnam
Owston's Palm Civet area.png
Size: 51–63 cm (20–25 in) long, plus 38–48 cm (15–19 in) tail[22]

Habitat: Forest and shrubland[23]

Diet: Believed to primarily eat earthworms and other invertebrates[23]
 EN 


Unknown Population declining[23]

Genus Cynogale (Gray, 1837) – one species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
Otter civet

Stuffed brown and gray viverrid

C. bennettii
Gray, 1837

Southeast Asia
Otter Civet area.png
Size: 57–68 cm (22–27 in) long, plus 12–21 cm (5–8 in) tail[22]

Habitat: Forest and inland wetlands[24]

Diet: Primarily eats fish, crabs, molluscs, small mammals, and birds[24]
 EN 


2,500 Population declining[24]

Genus Diplogale (Thomas, 1912) – one species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
Hose's palm civet

Drawing of brown viverrid

D. hosei
Thomas, 1892
Borneo in Southeast Asia
Hose's Palm Civet area.png
Size: 47–54 cm (19–21 in) long, plus 29–34 cm (11–13 in) tail[25]

Habitat: Forest[26]

Diet: Believed to primarily eat small fish, shrimp, crabs, and frogs as well as insects[26]
 VU 


9,500 Population declining[26]

Genus Hemigalus (Jourdan, 1837) – one species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
Banded palm civet

Gray and black banded viverrid

H. derbyanus
Gray, 1837

Southeast Asia
Banded Palm Civet area.png
Size: 45–56 cm (18–22 in) long, plus 25–36 cm (10–14 in) tail[22]

Habitat: Forest[27]

Diet: Primarily eats insects[27]
 NT 


Unknown Population declining[27]

Subfamily Paradoxurinae

Genus Arctictis (Temminck, 1824) – one species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
Binturong

Dark gray viverrid

A. binturong
Raffles, 1821

Southeast Asia
Binturong area.png
Size: 61–96 cm (24–38 in) long, plus 56–89 cm (22–35 in) tail[28]

Habitat: Forest[29]

Diet: Primarily eats fruit[29]
 VU 


Unknown Population declining[29]

Genus Arctogalidia (Merriam, 1897) – one species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
Small-toothed palm civet

Dark gray viverrid

A. trivirgata
Gray, 1832

Southeast Asia
Small-toothed Palm Cive area.png
Size: 44–60 cm (17–24 in) long, plus 48–66 cm (19–26 in) tail[30]

Habitat: Forest[31]

Diet: Omnivorous; primarily eats fruit[31]
 LC 


Unknown Population declining[31]

Genus Macrogalidia (Schwarz, 1910) – one species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
Sulawesi palm civet

Drawing of brown viverrids

M. musschenbroekii
Schlegel, 1877
Sulawesi island in Southeast Asia
Sulawesi Palm Civet area.png
Size: 65–72 cm (26–28 in) long, plus 44–54 cm (17–21 in) tail[3]

Habitat: Forest, shrubland, and grassland[32]

Diet: Primarily eats rodents and palm fruit, as well as other small mammals, birds, fruit, and grass[32]
 VU 


9,000 Population declining[32]

Genus Paguma (Gray, 1831) – one species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
Masked palm civet

Gray viverrid

P. larvata
H. Smith, 1827

East and southeast Asia
Masked Palm Civet area.png
Size: 50–76 cm (20–30 in) long, plus 50–64 cm (20–25 in) tail[33]

Habitat: Forest and shrubland[34]

Diet: Omnivorous; primarily eats fruit[34]
 LC 


Unknown Population declining[34]

Genus Paradoxurus (F. Cuvier, 1821) – three species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
Asian palm civet

Gray viverrid

P. hermaphroditus
Pallas, 1777

South and southeast Asia (green), introduced (red)
Asian Palm Civet area.png
Size: 47–57 cm (19–22 in) long, plus 47–56 cm (19–22 in) tail[35]

Habitat: Forest, shrubland, and grassland[36]

Diet: Primarily eats rats and fruit, as well as insects and molluscs[36]
 LC 


Unknown Population declining[36]

Brown palm civet

Drawing of brown viverrid

P. jerdoni
Blanford, 1885

Southwest India
Jerdon's Palm Civet range.png
Size: 43–62 cm (17–24 in) long, plus 38–53 cm (15–21 in) tail[37]

Habitat: Forest[38]

Diet: Primarily eats fruit, as well as birds, rodents, and insects[38]
 LC 


Unknown Population steady[38]

Golden palm civet

Brown viverrid

P. zeylonensis
Schreber, 1778
Sri Lanka
Golden Palm Civet range.png
Size: 50–58 cm (20–23 in) long, plus 43–53 cm (17–21 in) tail[3]

Habitat: Forest and shrubland[39]

Diet: Primarily eats berries, fruits, and invertebrates, as well as small vertebrates[39]
 LC 


Unknown Unknown[39]

Subfamily Viverrinae

Genus Civettictis (Pocock, 1915) – one species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
African civet

Brown and black viverrid

C. civetta
Schreber, 1776

Central and south Africa
African Civet area.png
Size: 60–92 cm (24–36 in) long, plus 43–61 cm (17–24 in) tail[40]

Habitat: Forest, savanna, shrubland, and inland wetlands[41]

Diet: Omnivorous; primarily eats fruit[41]
 LC 


Unknown Unknown[41]

Genus Viverra (Linnaeus, 1758) – four species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
Large-spotted civet

Drawing of brown and black viverrid

V. megaspila
Blyth, 1862
Southeast Asia
Large-spotted Civet area.png
Size: 77–90 cm (30–35 in) long, plus 32–40 cm (13–16 in) tail[35]

Habitat: Forest, shrubland, and inland wetlands[42]

Diet: Primarily eats birds, frogs, snakes, small mammals, eggs, crabs, fish, fruit, and roots[35][42]
 EN 


Unknown Population declining[42]

Large Indian civet

Brown and black viverrid

V. zibetha
Linnaeus, 1758

Southeast Asia
Large Indian Civet area.png
Size: 50–95 cm (20–37 in) long, plus 38–59 cm (15–23 in) tail[35]

Habitat: Forest and shrubland[43]

Diet: Primarily eats fish, birds, lizards, frogs, insects, arthropods, and crabs, as well as poultry and rubbish[43]
 LC 


Unknown Population declining[43]

Malabar large-spotted civet

Stuffed gray viverrid

V. civettina
Blyth, 1862
Southwest India
Malabar Large-spotted Civet area.png
Size: 76 cm (30 in) long, plus 33 cm (13 in) tail[44]

Habitat: Forest and inland wetlands[45]

Diet: Unknown[45]
 CR 


200 Population declining[45]

Malayan civet

Brown and black viverrid

V. tangalunga
Gray, 1832

Southeast Asia
Malayan Civet area.png
Size: 58–95 cm (23–37 in) long, plus 30–49 cm (12–19 in) tail[46]

Habitat: Forest and shrubland[47]

Diet: Omnivorous[47]
 LC 


Unknown Population steady[47]

Genus Viverricula (Hodgson, 1838) – one species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
Small Indian civet

Brown and black viverrid

V. indica
Desmarest, 1804

South and southeast Asia
Small Indian Civet area.png
Size: 45–63 cm (18–25 in) long, plus 30–43 cm (12–17 in) tail[48]

Habitat: Forest, savanna, shrubland, grassland, and inland wetlands[49]

Diet: Primarily eats rodents, birds, snakes, fruit, roots, carrion, and insects[49]
 LC 


Unknown Population steady[49]

Prehistoric viverrids

Black and white civet
Drawing of V. leakeyi (Leakey's civet)

In addition to extant viverrids, a number of prehistoric species have been discovered and classified as a part of Viverridae. In addition to being placed within the extant subfamily Viverrinae, they have been categorized within the extinct subfamily Lophocyoninae, though most have not been classified within a subfamily. There is no generally accepted classification of extinct viverrid species. The species listed here are based on data from the Paleobiology Database, unless otherwise cited. Where available, the approximate time period the species was extant is given in millions of years before the present (Mya), also based on data from the Paleobiology Database.[50] All listed species are extinct; where a genus or subfamily within Viverridae comprises only extinct species, it is indicated with a dagger symbol Extinct.

  • Subfamily LophocyoninaeExtinct
    • Genus LophocyonExtinct
      • L. paraskevaidisi
  • Subfamily Viverrinae (24 Mya–present)
    • Genus OrangictisExtinct (24–11 Mya)
      • O. gariepensis (24–11 Mya)
    • Genus SemigenettaExtinct (17–15 Mya)
      • S. cadeoti (17–15 Mya)
    • Genus Viverra (7.3 Mya–present)
  • Unclassified
    • Genus AfricanictisExtinct (24–11 Mya)
      • A. hyaenoides (24–11 Mya)
      • A. meini (24–11 Mya)
      • A. schmidtkittleri (24–15 Mya)
    • Genus KanuitesExtinct
    • Genus KetketictisExtinct (24–15 Mya)
      • K. solida (24–15 Mya)
    • Genus LeptoplesictisExtinct (24–15 Mya)
      • L. senutae (24–15 Mya)
      • L. namibiensis (24–15 Mya)
    • Genus MioprionodonExtinct (29–23 Mya)
      • M. hodopeus (29–23 Mya)
    • Genus ProgenettaExtinct (16–7.2 Mya)
    • Genus PseudocivettaExtinct (5.4–1.8 Mya)
    • Genus SahelictisExtinct
    • Genus TugenicitisExtinct
    • Genus VishnuictisExtinct (5.4–2.5 Mya)

References

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