Politics of Mali

Until the military coup of March 22, 2012 and a second military coup in December 2012 the politics of Mali took place in a framework of a semi-presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President of Mali is head of state with a Presidentially appointed Prime Minister as the head of government, and of a multi-party system.

Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the National Assembly. The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature.

In August 2018, President Ibrahim Boubacar Keita was re-elected for a new five-year term after winning the second round of the election against Soumaïla Cissé.

The Economist Intelligence Unit rated Mali an "authoritarian regime" in 2022.

On 18 August 2020 a coup d'état ousted the president and prime minister. On 25 September 2020, retired colonel and former defence minister Bah Ndaw was sworn in as Mali's interim president.

On 15 April 2021, the transitional administration announced that legislative and presidential elections will be held on 27 February 2022. On 7 June 2021, Mali's military commander Assimi Goita was sworn into office as the new interim president. On 30 December 2021, the transitional administration announced plans to delay the election by six months to five years in part because of security issues, leading to political opposition and sanctions.

Executive branch

Main office-holders
Office Name Party Since
Interim President Assimi Goïta Military 25 May 2021
Prime Minister Choguel Kokalla Maïga Independent 6 June 2021

The executive branch consists of the President of Mali and the Government of Mali, lead by the Prime Minister of Mali.

Under Mali's 1992 constitution, the president is chief of state and commander in chief of the armed forces. The president is elected to 5-year terms by direct popular vote. He is limited to two terms.

The Prime Minister of Mali is the head of government. They are appointed by the president and are responsible for the appointment of the other ministers of government.

The president chairs the Council of Ministers (the prime minister and currently[when?] 27 other ministers), which adopts a proposals for laws submitted to the National Assembly for approval of them.

Legislative branch

The National Assembly is the sole legislative arm of the Malian government. It has 160 members, who are elected directly for a five-year term by party list. 147 members are elected in single-seat constituencies and 13 members elected by Malians abroad. Representation is apportioned according to the population of administrative districts.

The Assembly meets for two regular sessions each year. It debates and votes on legislation proposed either by one of its members or by the government; it also has the right to question government ministers about government actions and policies. Eight political parties, aggregated into four parliamentary groups, are represented in the Assembly. ADEMA currently[when?] holds the majority; minority parties are represented in all committees and in the Assembly directorate.

Political parties and elections

Mali's constitution provides for a multi-party democracy, with the only restriction being a prohibition against parties based on ethnic, religious, regional, or gender lines. In addition to those political parties represented in the National Assembly, others are active in municipal councils.

Presidential elections

CandidatePartyFirst roundSecond round
Ibrahim Boubacar KeïtaRally for Mali1,331,13241.701,791,92667.16
Soumaïla CisséUnion for the Republic and Democracy567,67917.78876,12432.84
Aliou DialloDemocratic Alliance for Peace256,4048.03
Cheick Modibo DiarraCMD236,0257.39
Housseini Amion GuindoConvergence for the Development of Mali124,5063.90
Oumar MarikoAfrican Solidarity for Democracy and Independence74,3002.33
Modibo KoneMali Kanu Movement72,9412.29
Choguel Kokalla MaïgaPatriotic Movement for Renewal68,9702.16
Harouna SankareHarouna Movement57,4061.80
Mamadou Oumar SidibeParty for the Restoration of Malian Values54,2741.70
Modibo SidibeAlternative Forces for Renewal and Emergence45,4531.42
Kalfa SanogoAlliance for Democracy in Mali (unofficial)38,8921.22
Mamadou Diarra36,1241.13
Modibo KadjokeAlliance for Mali30,4790.95
Moussa Sinko CoulibalyIndependent30,2320.95
Adama KaneIndependent26,0840.82
Daba DiawaraParty for Independence, Democracy and Solidarity22,9910.72
Mountaga TallNational Congress for Democratic Initiative20,3120.64
Dramane DembeleAlliance for Democracy in Mali18,7370.59
Mohamed Ali BathilyAssociation for Mali17,7120.55
Hamadoun ToureIndependent17,0870.54
Yeah SamakeParty for Civic and Patriotic Action16,6320.52
Mamadou TraoreMIRIA15,5020.49
Madame Djeneba N'diayeIndependent12,2750.38
Valid votes3,192,14993.442,668,05096.89
Invalid/blank votes224,0696.5685,6483.11
Total votes3,416,218100.002,753,698100.00
Registered voters/turnout8,000,46242.708,000,46234.42
Source: Constitutional Court

Parliamentary elections

Rally for Mali708,71629.3566+55
Union for the Republic and Democracy546,62822.6417–17
Alliance for Democracy in Mali277,51711.4916–35
Alternative Forces for Renewal and Emergence881,61336.516New
Convergence for the Development of Mali5New
African Solidarity for Democracy and Independence5+1
National Congress for Democratic Initiative4–3
Party for National Rebirth3–1
Party for Economic Development and Solidarity3New
Patriotic Movement for Renewal3–5
Alliance for Solidarity in Mali3New
Democratic Alliance for Peace2New
Social Democratic Convention2New
Movement for the Independence, Renaissance, and Integration of Africa20
Malian Union for the African Democratic Rally2+1
Change Party1New
Union for Democracy and Development1–2
Party for the Restoration of Malian Values1New
Union of Patriots for Renewal1New
Action Convergence for the People0
African Convergence for Renewal0
African Front for Mobilisation and Alternation0
African Movement for Democracy and Integration0
African Social Democratic Party0
Alliance for Mali0
Alliance for the Promotion and Development of Mali0
Alliance of Convinced Nationalists for Development0
Alternative Bloc for African Renewal0
Alternation Bloc for Renewal, Integration, and African Cooperation0
Bolen Mali Deme Ton0
Citizens' Party for Revival0
Dambe Mali Alliance0
Democratic Action for Change and Alternation in Mali0
Democratic Consultation0
Ecologist Party of Mali0
Future and Development in Mali0
Liberal Democratic Party0
Luminary Party for Africa0
Malian Rally for Labour0
Movement for a Common Destiny0
Movement for Democracy and Development0
Movement of Patriots for Social Justice0
Movement of the Free, United and Combined Populations0
National Alliance for Construction0
National Convention for African Solidarity0
National Union for Renewal0
Party for Civic and Patriotic Action0
Party for Development and Social0
Party for Education, Culture, Health and Agriculture0
Party for Independence, Democracy and Solidarity0
Party for Solidarity and Progress0
Party for the Difference in Mali0
Party of Democratic Renewal and Labour0
Rally for Change0
Rally for Democracy and Progress0
Rally for Development and Solidarity0
Rally for Education about Sustainable Development0
Rally for Justice and Progress0
Rally for Labour Democracy0
Rally for Social Justice0
Rally for the Development of Mali0
Rally of the Republicans0
Sikikafo Oyedamouyé0
Social Democratic Party0
Socialist Party0
Socialist and Democratic Party0
Synergy for a New Mali0
Union for a People's Movement for Reform0
Union for Democracy and Alternation0
Union for Peace and Democracy0
Union for the Development of Mali0
Union of Democratic Forces0
Union of Patriots for the Republic0
Union of the Movements and Alliances for Mali0
Valid votes2,414,47495.23
Invalid/blank votes121,0414.77
Total votes2,535,515100.00
Registered voters/turnout6,564,02638.63
Source: Ministry of the Interior[permanent dead link], IPU, Adam Carr, Abamako

In the second round, out of 5,951,838 registered voters, 2,221,283 cast a vote - with 2,122,449 being valid - totalling a 37.32% turnout, according to the Constitutional Court

Judicial branch

Mali's legal system is based on codes inherited at independence from France. New laws have been enacted to make the system conform to Malian life, but French colonial laws not abrogated still have the force of law. The constitution provides for the independence of the judiciary.

The Ministry of Justice appoints judges and supervises both law enforcement and judicial functions. The Supreme Court has both judicial and administrative powers. Under the constitution, there is a separate constitutional court and a high court of justice with the power to try senior government officials in cases of treason.

Administrative divisions

Administratively, Mali is divided into ten regions (Gao, Ménaka, Kayes, Kidal, Koulikoro, Mopti, Ségou, Sikasso, Tombouctou, Taoudénit) and the capital district of Bamako, each under the authority of an elected governor. Each region consists of five to nine districts (or Cercles), administered by Prefects. Cercles are divided into communes, which, in turn, are divided into villages or quarters.

A decentralisation and democratisation process began in the 1990s with the establishment of 702 elected municipal councils, headed by elected mayors, and previously appointed officials have been replaced with elected officials, which culminates in a National council of local officials. Other changes included greater local control over finances, and the reduction of administrative control by the central government.

Foreign relations


This page was last updated at 2023-12-11 06:21 UTC. Update now. View original page.

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