Quetta

Quetta
  • کوټه
  • کویٹہ
  • کوئٹہ
Jinnah Road
Quetta at night
Fort Mirri
Official logo of Quetta
Nickname: 
Fruit Garden of Pakistan
Quetta is located in Balochistan, Pakistan
Quetta
Quetta
Quetta is located in Pakistan
Quetta
Quetta
Coordinates: 30°11′N 67°00′E / 30.183°N 67.000°E / 30.183; 67.000
Country Pakistan
ProvinceBalochistan, Pakistan Balochistan
DivisionQuetta
DistrictQuetta
Settled1876; 148 years ago (1876)
Government
 • TypeMunicipal Corporation
 • MayorSeat Vacant
 • Deputy MayorSeat Vacant
 • CommissionerHamza Shafqaat
 • Deputy CommissionerSaad Bin Asad
Area
 • City3,501 km2 (1,352 sq mi)
 • Metro3,501 km2 (1,352 sq mi)
Elevation1,680 m (5,510 ft)
Population
 • City1,001,205
 • Rank10th in Pakistan;
1st in Balochistan
 • Density290/km2 (740/sq mi)
 • DemonymQuettan or Quettawal (kʰwətə.wal)
Time zoneUTC+05:00 (PKT)
Postal code
87300
Dialing code081
Websitewww.balochistan.gov.pk

Quetta (/ˈkwɛtə/; Urdu: کوئٹہ, ko'eṭa, [ˈkweːʈə] Balochi: کویٹہ) is the capital and largest city of the Pakistani province of Balochistan. It is the tenth largest city in Pakistan, with a population of over 1.1 million. It is situated in the south-west of the country, lying in a valley surrounded by mountains on all sides. Quetta is at an average elevation of 1,680 metres (5,510 feet) above sea level, making it Pakistan's only high-altitude major city. The city is known as the "Fruit Garden of Pakistan" due to the numerous fruit orchards in and around it and the large variety of fresh and dried fruits produced there.

Located in northern Balochistan near the Pakistan-Afghanistan border and the road across to Kandahar, Quetta is a trade and communication centre between the two countries. The city is near the Bolan Pass, which was on a major gateway from Central Asia to South Asia. Quetta is currently home to 500,000 undocumented Afghan refugees.[citation needed]

Etymology

The name Quetta is a variation of the Pashto word Kwatkōṭ, or kōta meaning "fortress". Quetta was formerly known as Shalkot (Pashto: ښالکوټ; Balochi: شال کوٹ),

History

The immediate area has long been one of pastures and mountains, with varied plants and animals relative to the dry plains to the west.

From 11th century, the land of Quetta was owned and ruled by the Kasi Pashtun tribe. It was captured by Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi during his invasion of South Asia. In 1543, Mughal emperor Humayun came to Quetta en route to Safavid Persia, leaving his son and future Mughal emperor Akbar here. In 1709, the region was a part of Afghan Hotak dynasty and stayed a part until 1747 when Ahmed Shah Durrani conquered it and made it a part of Durrani Empire. The first European visited Quetta in 1828, describing it as mud-walled fort surrounded by three hundred mud houses.

In 1876, Quetta was occupied by the British and subsequently incorporated into British India. In 1856, British General John Jacob had urged his government to occupy Quetta given its strategic position on the western frontier. British troops constructed the infrastructure for their establishment.

Map of Quetta in 1935

By the time of the earthquake on 31 May 1935, Quetta had developed into a bustling city with a number of skyscraper buildings and so was known as "Little London".[citation needed] The epicentre of the earthquake was close to the city and destroyed most of the city's infrastructure, killing an estimated 40,000 people.

Geography

Climate

Quetta has a cold semi-arid climate (Köppen BSk) with a significant variation between summer and winter temperatures. Summer starts from late May and goes on until early September with average temperatures ranging from 24–26 °C (75–79 °F). The highest temperature in Quetta is 42 °C (108 °F) which was recorded on 10 July 1998. Autumn starts in mid-September and continues until mid-November with average temperatures in the 12–18 °C (54–64 °F) range. Winter starts in late November and ends in late February with average temperatures near 4–5 °C (39–41 °F). The lowest temperature in Quetta is −18.3 °C (−0.9 °F) which was recorded on 8 January 1970. Spring starts in early March and ends in mid-May with average temperatures close to 15 °C (59 °F). Unlike more easterly parts of Pakistan, Quetta does not have a monsoon season of heavy rainfall. Highest rainfall during 24 hours in Quetta is 113 millimetres (4.4 in) which was recorded on 17 December 2000, Highest monthly rainfall of 232.4 millimetres (9.15 in) was recorded in March 1982 which was also the year of the highest annual rainfall, 949.8 millimetres (37.39 in). In the winter, snowfall has become quite erratic (December, January and February).

Climate data for Quetta (1991-2020)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 23.6
(74.5)
26.7
(80.1)
31.1
(88.0)
35.0
(95.0)
39.4
(102.9)
41.5
(106.7)
42.0
(107.6)
40.6
(105.1)
38.3
(100.9)
34.0
(93.2)
36.0
(96.8)
25.0
(77.0)
42.0
(107.6)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 11.8
(53.2)
14.0
(57.2)
19.5
(67.1)
25.9
(78.6)
31.4
(88.5)
35.5
(95.9)
36.8
(98.2)
35.4
(95.7)
31.9
(89.4)
26.0
(78.8)
19.6
(67.3)
14.6
(58.3)
25.2
(77.4)
Daily mean °C (°F) 4.8
(40.6)
7.1
(44.8)
12.5
(54.5)
17.9
(64.2)
23.0
(73.4)
27.3
(81.1)
29.2
(84.6)
27.5
(81.5)
22.8
(73.0)
16.5
(61.7)
11.0
(51.8)
6.5
(43.7)
17.2
(62.9)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) −1.9
(28.6)
0.3
(32.5)
5.1
(41.2)
10.0
(50.0)
14.6
(58.3)
19.0
(66.2)
21.6
(70.9)
19.7
(67.5)
13.6
(56.5)
7.0
(44.6)
1.9
(35.4)
−1.4
(29.5)
9.1
(48.4)
Record low °C (°F) −18.3
(−0.9)
−16.7
(1.9)
−8.3
(17.1)
−3.9
(25.0)
−0.3
(31.5)
5.0
(41.0)
8.9
(48.0)
3.3
(37.9)
−0.6
(30.9)
−8.3
(17.1)
−13.3
(8.1)
−18.3
(−0.9)
−18.3
(−0.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 45.0
(1.77)
48.4
(1.91)
49.5
(1.95)
30.0
(1.18)
7.8
(0.31)
3.2
(0.13)
8.8
(0.35)
4.9
(0.19)
4.2
(0.17)
4.5
(0.18)
10.3
(0.41)
24.6
(0.97)
241.2
(9.52)
Average snowfall cm (inches) 22
(8.7)
17
(6.6)
3.0
(1.2)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0.51
(0.2)
14
(5.4)
56.51
(22.1)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 5.0 5.7 5.4 4.1 1.7 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.4 0.6 1.7 2.7 29.6
Mean monthly sunshine hours 220.1 209.05 232.5 273.0 334.8 327.0 313.1 313.1 294.0 306.9 279.0 238.7 3,341.25
Source 1: NOAA, Hong Kong Observatory (altitude: 1589 m) (only snow inch, sun)
Source 2: PMD

The city saw a severe drought from 1999 to 2001 during which the city did not receive snowfall and below normal rains. In 2002, the city received snow after a gap of five years. In 2004 and 2005, the city received normal rains after three years without snowfall while in 2006, 2007 and 2009 the city received no snow. In 2008, it received a snowfall of 10 centimetres (4 in) in four hours on 29 January, followed on 2 February by 25.4 centimetres (10 in) in 10 hours – the city's heaviest snowfall in a decade. During the winter of 2010, it received no snow and saw below normal rains due to the presence of El-Nino over Pakistan.[citation needed]

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1941 65,000—    
1951 84,000+29.2%
1961 107,000+27.4%
1972 158,000+47.7%
1981 286,000+81.0%
1998 565,137+97.6%
2017 1,001,205+77.2%
Source:

The population of the city is around one million. In 2016, it was estimated at 1,140,000, but the 2017 Census revealed a total of 1,001,205.[citation needed] This makes it the largest city in Balochistan province and one of the major cities of Pakistan. The scholars disagree about the demographics of the city. According to some, the city has a Pashtun plurality followed by Baloch people. The Hazaras and the settlers from other areas of Pakistan also live here. Others think the city has a Pashtun majority followed by Balochs, Hazaras, Brahui, Punjabis and Muhajir people. Urdu being the national language is used and understood by all the residents and serves as a lingua franca.

According to Reuters and the BBC, there are as many as 500,000-600,000 Hazaras living in Quetta and its surrounding areas.

Religious groups in Quetta City (1941 & 2017)
Religious
group
1941: 13–14  2017
Pop. % Pop. %
Islam 27,935 43.33% 975,815 97.64%
Hinduism 24,010 37.24% 6,112 0.61%
Sikhism 7,364 11.42%
Christianity 5,024 7.79% 16,842 1.69%
Zoroastrianism 73 0.11%
Buddhism 42 0.07%
Judaism 11 0.02%
Jainism 6 0.01%
Ahmadiyya 363 0.04%
Others 11 0.02% 253 0.03%
Total population 64,476 100% 999,385 100%

Administration

At the local level, the city is governed by a municipal corporation consisting of 66 ward members which elects a mayor and a deputy mayor. In addition, Quetta Development Authority is responsible for provision of municipal services for the city.

Transportation

Passengers boarding a Chaman bound train at Baleli, Quetta
Quetta railway station was built during the British Raj

Quetta is on the western side of Pakistan and is connected to the rest of the country by a network of roads, railways and its international airport close to its centre.

At an altitude of 1,605 metres (5,266 feet) above sea level, Quetta International Airport is the second highest airport in Pakistan. Pakistan International Airlines has regular flights to and from the other major cities of Pakistan including Islamabad, Gwadar, Karachi, Lahore and Peshawar.

Quetta Railway Station is one of the highest railway stations in Pakistan at 1,676 metres (5,499 feet) above sea level. The railway track was laid in the 1890s during the British era to link Quetta with rest of the country. The extensive network of Pakistan Railways connects Quetta to Karachi in the south, by a 863 km (536 mi) track, Lahore in the northeast (1,170 km or 727 miles) and Peshawar further northeast (1,587 km or 986 miles). A metalled road runs alongside the railway that connects Quetta to Karachi via the nearby town of Sibi to Jacobabad and Rohri in the plain of the River Indus.

Education

Quetta serves as the learning centre for the Balochistan province. The city has a number of government and private colleges, including the following:

Sports

Football is the most popular sport among the people of Quetta. Football clubs from Quetta include: Quetta Zorawar, Muslim FC, Balochistan United W.F.C., Hazara Green Football Club, Baluch Football Club and Quetta Bazigars Club. Balochistan United W.F.C. won the 2014 National Women Championship.

Quetta cricket stadium
Home of Quetta Gladiators

Bugti Stadium is the home of Balochistan cricket team, a first-class cricket team which competes in domestic tournaments, and the Quetta based team Quetta Gladiators compete in the Pakistan Super League (PSL). They were the champion of the PSL 2019.

Boxing is highly popular as well. Muhammad Waseem is a professional boxer from Quetta. In Body Building Nisar Ahmed Khilji has Mr. Balochistan and Mr. Pakistan Titles and Pakistan representation in International Body Building Contests. In hockey, Quetta has produced Zeeshan Ashraf and Shakeel Abbasi, who were members of the Pakistan's national hockey team.

Facilities

Musa Sports Complex

The Shaheed Nauoroz Stadium is the largest stadium in the city. The city also has Ayub National Stadium, a multipurpose stadium used for football and cricket and Bugti Stadium for cricket.

Local facilities were created in the city for mountain climbing and caving as well as water sports. Hayatullah Khan Durrani (Pride of Performance) is the chief executive of Hayat Durrani Water Sports Academy, Balochistan's first and only Rowing, Canoeing, Kayaking, Sailing, rough swimming and boating academy where all such facilities provide free to the youth members at Hanna Lake.

Twin towns and sister cities

Gallery

See also


This page was last updated at 2024-04-16 09:40 UTC. Update now. View original page.

All our content comes from Wikipedia and under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.


Top

If mathematical, chemical, physical and other formulas are not displayed correctly on this page, please useFirefox or Safari